Faculty – The Citadel Today https://today.citadel.edu Thu, 01 Oct 2020 18:29:16 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5.1 https://today.citadel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Citadel-Favion-new-150x150.png Faculty – The Citadel Today https://today.citadel.edu 32 32 144096890 Opinion: Trump debate refusal to discourage unrest after the election shows he doesn’t get the U.S. https://today.citadel.edu/opinion-trump-debate-refusal-to-discourage-unrest-after-the-election-shows-he-doesnt-get-the-u-s/ Thu, 01 Oct 2020 18:16:11 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=19093 Think, NBC News's home for op-eds, in-depth analyses and essays about news, published an article by Citadel professor Jacob Hagstrom, Ph.D.]]>

Photo: An engraved portrait of George Washington holding his Farewell Address.

Note: Jacob Hagstrom, Ph.D., is a new professor in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. He teaches Leadership in Military History and History of the U.S. Military as a member of The Citadel’s History Department.

As seen on NBC Think
By Jacob Hagstrom, Ph.D.

Tuesday night’s verbal brawl between the presidential candidates broke nearly every rule of debate decorum short of a descent into physical violence. The rules dictating equal time for both sides and restraint from interruptions might seem trivial, but their contravention in Cleveland is significant for more than its denying the American people the opportunity to hear clear and contrasting views about the country’s most pressing issues from the two people poised to run it.

Jacob Hagstrom, Ph.D.

It was also a breach of the more fundamental values supporting American democracy: deference to established norms, respect for different points of view and reasoned debate. Because what makes America work isn’t just the brilliance of the U.S. Constitution in laying out a balance of powers and restraining any one individual from becoming a despot. It’s also because those individuals choose to subordinate themselves to those laws and accept them peacefully without resorting to force. Such action could quickly override the words written on paper.

Which is why it was even more troubling to hear President Donald Trump refuse to forthrightly answer moderator Chris Wallace’s question about whether he would urge his followers not to engage in civil unrest until the end of a potentially lengthy ballot-counting process in November.

While it’s easy to dismiss the president’s response when asked these kinds of questions as mere political jockeying not to be taken seriously — and indeed, that is likely the fact of the matter — it is still important that we remind ourselves of the underlying fragility of our system and what’s at stake.

It was very much a question whether the world’s first experiment with the republican process would succeed back in the late 1700s. It’s only now, centuries later, that we take voluntary departure from high office after the completion of the appointed term as a matter of course. And we can take it for granted because the Americans before us chose to follow those principles.

In fact, the concept of a peaceful transition of power was so revolutionary that even many of the framers of the Constitution themselves hesitated to count on it. They were wary of the risks of concentrating federal power in a single executive and feared that the tyranny of the federal government would be worse than that of Britain. Samuel Adams, among many leaders of the patriots of 1776, believed that the new government would be filled with an aristocratic ruling class and that the very act of centralizing the government would breed striving politicians who would oppress their ordinary constituents.

The reluctance of many framers to sign the Constitution was eased only by their virtually unanimous respect for the leadership of George Washington. Some at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 agreed to its strengthening of executive power only after being reassured that Washington would come out of retirement to accept the presidency.

Like Trump, our first executive was fabulously wealthy, and, alongside Benjamin Franklin, he was one of the biggest celebrities in the Atlantic world. But Washington’s stature was due to his republican values, based on the ancient Roman archetype of Cincinnatus. Washington and his supporters believed that the greatest honor was due a successful general who gave up public power to enjoy private life.

That creating the office of the presidency in the young United States was largely dependent upon having the right person to fill the role indicates how shaky the concept was at the time and how essential the model of Washington was.

Thankfully, Washington was aware of his role in history and establishing a republican tradition. His widely circulated Farewell Address made clear the importance of his stepping down from presidential power in 1797 rather than pursuing a third term in office. In part, Washington sought refuge from the national stage after a lifetime of diplomatic and military service. In a private letter to Alexander Hamilton, Washington revealed that he also sought to avoid abuse “in the public prints by a set of infamous scribblers.”

But though Washington’s retreat from the public spotlight went off without a hitch, it wasn’t enough to secure the principle of the peaceful transfer of power. The first genuine fears of violence during an American transition came soon enough, when Washington’s successor, John Adams, ran for re-election in 1800. In the shadow of the French Revolution, there were fears across the Atlantic that republics could not long survive.

Part of the novelty of the election was that a small but aggressively partisan press had developed by 1800. The partisan “scribblers” whom Washington bemoaned trafficked in fears that the election of the leader of either budding faction, Jefferson or Adams, would result in mobs spreading “villainy and bloodshed.” Of course, none materialized.

But political violence remained an ever-present threat in the early republic, usually taking the form of former military officers going rogue, like Aaron Burr, who tied Jefferson for the most electoral votes in 1800 and lost the vote in the House of Representatives. Burr went on a campaign to stir dissent, with critics accusing him of treason — specifically, plotting to form a breakaway republic in the West.

But Washington’s example of disinterested leadership proved stronger than such challenges, even when the most serious threat to the transfer-of-power tradition emerged in the contested election of 1824. That year, military hero Andrew Jackson, famous both for duels and for leading an unauthorized war against the Seminoles, won a plurality of the popular vote and more electoral votes than his two main rivals, the aristocratic John Quincy Adams and Sen. Henry Clay.

But none had a majority in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives decided the election. The legislature decided against Jackson, even though by all democratic logic he was the choice of the people, in what Jackson denounced as a “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay.

Though Jackson was, in fact, accustomed to personal and military violence, he abstained from “the Society of both intriguers and Caucus mongers,” writing, “If ever I fill that office, it must be the free choice of the people — I can then say I am the President of the Nation — and my acts will comport with that character.” Jackson simply waited as states began to allow property-less white men to vote, which he correctly calculated would score him a landslide victory in 1828.

Instead of challenging the integrity of the democratic system, Jackson merely challenged that of contemporary political parties. Trump, too, likely represents only the breakdown of the current two-party system rather than a breakdown in society and geopolitics at large.

Jackson’s populism led to the growth of the anti-Jackson Whig Party in the 1840s from the wreckage of the old Federalist Party of Hamilton and the elder Adams, as well as anti-Jackson Democrats in the mold of the more principled and erudite Jefferson. The new Whigs remained a check on Jacksonian Democrats until the sectional crisis of the Civil War era reorganized the party system once again.

Many aspects of political culture in the era of Jackson — populism, racialized thinking and the favoritism of a nepotistic governing system — have re-emerged as pressing problems. But these problems didn’t lead Jackson to try to hold power unlawfully, even as many feared what the galvanizing of disaffected poor white men would mean for the republic.

Today, Americans must hope that Trump’s threats to remain in power against the wishes of the people are as empty as his threats to “build a wall” or “lock her up” and that, like his hero Jackson, he, too, follows in Washington’s footsteps.

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With new members, Charleston’s Equity, Inclusion and Racial Conciliation committee takes shape https://today.citadel.edu/with-new-members-charlestons-equity-inclusion-and-racial-conciliation-committee-takes-shape/ Fri, 14 Aug 2020 15:30:32 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17812 Felice Knight, Ph.D., a Citadel professor, specializing in African American History and slavery, and serves on Truth, Racial Healing and Transformation team.]]>

Photo: Michael Better speaks at the press conference announcing a resolution to remove the Calhoun monument on June 17 (Courtesy: Sam Spence, Charleston City Paper)

Note: Felice Knight, Ph.D., is a history professor at The Citadel who specializes in African American History with an emphasis on slavery during the early national and antebellum periods. Additionally, Knight is director of The Citadel’s Universities Studying Slavery Committee and serves on The Citadel Truth, Racial Healing and Transformation team. Knight was recently appointed to the City of Charleston Special Commission on Equity, Inclusion, and Racial Conciliation, which was formed to review City policies, practices, budget and other matters related to addressing racism and racial inequities and to make recommendations to City Council on ways to promote racial justice and racial equity in the City.

As seen in Charleston City Paper, by Heath Ellison

Charleston leaders added seven new members to the city’s new Special Commission on Equity, Inclusion and Racial Conciliation in a unanimous vote Tuesday. The commission, headed by Councilmen William Dudley Gregorie and Jason Sakran, plans to look at structural racism within the city and will conduct an internal review of city departments.

Felice Knight, Ph.D.

Tracy Doran, Alvin Johnson, David Rivers, Michael Better, Crystal Rouse, Felice Knight and Daron Lee Calhoun were appointed to the commission. Gregorie told the City Paper that the committee chose this group to avoid “the usual faces” and to get a “good mix of age, ideas, cultures.”

Each commission member will focus on a specific subcommittee such as history, housing and economic empowerment.

Daron Lee Calhoun, programming and social justice initiative coordinator at Avery Research Center, was appointed as a commissioner of the city’s internal review. “We will definitely be looking at all the city departments and seeing how we can use the racial equity lens to bring true equity and inclusion to these departments,” he said.

Calhoun singled out hiring and longterm systemic changes as something he wants to focus on. He hopes a full audit of the city’s departments will be conducted, similar to the racial bias audit of the Charleston Police Department. “It’s going to take money and we can’t just say we’re going to do this,” Calhoun added. “They have to be able to put something behind it.”

Crystal Rouse, who was elected to the subcommittee on youth and education, said she is excited to bring experience in education and anti-racism to the commission. “I look forward to working with fellow commission members and local citizens to continue the dismantling of systemic racism and racial inequities that have plagued our city and nation for centuries,” she said.

Sakran said there is no formal plan for the commission at this point.

In 2018, Charleston City Council passed a resolution issuing an official apology for its role in enabling chattel slavery by a 7-5 vote. The measure was spearheaded by Gregorie in partnership with the Sophia Institute’s Social Justice Racial Equity Collaborative. Earlier this year, the city voted unanimously to bring down a controversial monument to slavery advocate John C. Calhoun in Marion Square.

The racial conciliation commission was created June 4, soon after protests hit downtown May 30 over the killing of George Floyd at the hands of Minneapolis police. Some organizers and leaders in the black community have voiced concern that the commission is just another panel instead of a move toward change and action.

“We do need more action, but it’s a step in the right direction,” said Marcus McDonald, a local Black Lives Matter organizer.

McDonald said he can’t be too critical of the group before anything has happened, but he acknowledges he wants more transparency from the city on the commission. McDonald said he wished the commission was announced with each member’s power and responsibilities.

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Cadets and students are “SURE” to continue their investigative studies https://today.citadel.edu/cadets-and-students-are-sure-to-continue-their-investigative-studies/ Thu, 06 Aug 2020 13:41:37 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17319 A select number of cadets and students worked virtually throughout the summer as paid researchers in their areas of interest, guided by expert professors.]]>

An unusual summer is not stopping undergraduate research at The Citadel

Research is an integral part of learning at institutions of higher education. Usually, a select number of cadets and students would remain on campus throughout the summer to work as paid researchers in their areas of interest.

However, with the campus closed, much of the research moved online — but continued, all the same.

This summer’s projects are focused on topics such as preventing spear phishing cyber-attacks, how street trees help cool Charleston, ways to determine human-trafficking hot spots, the migration and evolution of seagrape trees and more.

The undergraduate researchers began their projects after being selected for the Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE). The program provides stipends to the cadets and students, allowing them to be entirely focused on their research. Many of the projects are being extended through the fall semester, with extra time needed due to work limitations resulting from the pandemic.

Here are some of the SURE projects underway:

Tracking coastal tree migration and the genetic effects of hurricanes

Cadets Ben Scott, Logan Dix and Derek Webster — led by Biology professor Danny Gustafson, Ph.D. — are researching how a tropical plant spread throughout the Caribbean basin and what affect hurricanes may have had on the plant’s evolution.

A seagrape tree with fruit (Courtesy: Danny Gustafson, Ph.D.)

Coccoloba uvifera (the scientific name for seagrapes) can be found in southern Florida, the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago, and more. The research is based in biogeography — the study of how a species spreads over time to different locations.

The plant grows along the edge of the beach, where it often bears the brunt of hurricanes. The research also looks at how those hurricanes may have affected the genetics, by looking at samples that come from areas with different levels of historical tropical activity.

Seagrape trees growing along the coast (Courtesy: Danny Gustafson, Ph.D.)

The cadets have traced the genetic variances in the plants’ chloroplast, based on location. They helped with DNA extraction, Polymerase chain reactions (or rapidly multiplying the DNA samples for study), and sequencing. The next step is learning how to use software that helps interpret that data.

“The data given through DNA is so massive, it’s nearly impossible for humans alone to understand,” said Scott. “That’s where computers come in. BEAST2 is open-source software for Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis. This means there is an entire community working together from around the world to develop software for phylogenetic analysis of molecular sequences, and it’s free to use.”

Scott says the software has also been used to understand the global migration of viruses, such as influenza and, now, COVID-19.

He’s been learning how to use the software, and will use the program to map how the plant spread out across the Caribbean Basin.

Gustafson has been working on this research for a few years. “My productive undergraduate research laboratory is driven by our exceptional biology students,” he said.

The research was presented at the 2019 SURF Conference and The Citadel’s Student Excellence Day; the abstract was accepted by the Association of Southeastern Biologists.

Jelly made from seagrape fruit (Courtesy: Danny Gustafson, Ph.D.)

Exploring the cooling effects of street trees in Charleston

Between the heat and the humidity, a Charleston summer can feel almost unbearable. But part of what makes the city beautiful may also make it feel a little more tolerable.

Cadet Anthony Sands, along with Civil and Environmental Engineering professor Nandan Shetty, Ph.D., are researching the possible cooling, environmental effects from the trees that line the city streets – effects on all of Charleston, beyond just the relief of standing in the shade.

They are receiving data from remote sensors they placed in trees on three different samples — on an oak tree, a crape myrtle and, as a control, a light pole.

Cadet Anthony Sands checking a sensor in Hampton Park

“The sensors that we installed measure temperature and relative humidity,” said Shetty. “Temperature and humidity can be used to calculate a heat index, the measure of how hot it actually feels.”

They hope to expand the project to include twelve sensors on the south side of Hampton Park.

For Sands, the project means more than just scientific exploration.

“I became interested in doing research primarily to get an experience of what graduate school would look like,” he said. “I am thoroughly interested in environmental engineering, and quantifying the effects of street trees is a step further in the direction of where I want to be.”

At the end of the project, Sands and Shetty plan to submit their research abstract to the American Society for Engineering Education-Southeast.

Diversity in the nursing industry

One of the SURE projects combines two of the most important issues of 2020 — the importance of healthcare workers and the national need for expanded diversity and inclusion.

Cadet Mya Dollard, along with Amy Joseph, Ph.D., head of The Swain Department of Nursing at The Citadel, are focused on both of those issues.

Cadet Mya Dollard practicing in the The Swain Department of Nursing Human Simulation Lab in early 2020, before the campus closure

“Our project looks into the different barriers that racial minorities face starting in at the middle and high school levels that may limit them from successfully pursuing careers in STEM fields, like nursing” said Dollard. “We are looking to find ways to help underrepresented minorities succeed early on. This increases diversity in these professions.”

Dollard is conducting a literary review, reading scholarly articles about ways to improve racial diversity. She works to find the best ideas in the research, and then she and Joseph meet virtually each week to go over the findings.

Cadet Mya Dollard meeting virtually with Amy Joseph, Ph.D.

“We hope to write a grant to fund a new program, designed to increase the number of minority students who enter college, seeking health-related degrees,” said Joseph. “This has been something that I have wanted to work on for years and having Mya to help me has really motivated me.”

The team recently wrote a letter for their potential grant donors, and hope to have the grant written by the end of the year.

Other SURE projects include:

Analysing the speed and position of drones
Cadet Alexander Stensland with Pat Briggs, Ph.D.

Analysis of the metathoracic glands of the leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus zonatus
Cadet Daniel Burckhalter with David Donnell, Ph.D.

Comparison of methods of generating photon radiation in hadron ccattering
Cadet Matthew Dittrich with Scott Yost, Ph.D.

Decision-making biases in preschool children
Cadet Hayley Dettenmayer with Audrey Parrish, Ph.D.

Fecal bacteria in Charleston flood waters
Cadet Malcom Jackson with Claudia Rocha, Ph.D.

Investigation of isometric strength characteristics and jump performance
Cadet Melanie Mikoy with Christopher Sole, Ph.D., CSCS, *D

Mathematical modeling of COVID-19 using regression methods
Cadet Ernest James with Mei Chen, Ph.D.

Pluff mud stability
College Transfer Student Brianna Rice with Simon Ghanat, Ph.D.

Sex work activity analysis of truck stops and human trafficking hot spot identification across the U.S.
Veteran student Ashley Towers with Jordana Navarro, Ph.D.

The Citadel’s Universities Studying Slavery project
Cadet Taylor Diggs with Felice Knight, Ph.D.

The metabolism of Mitragyna speciose
Veteran student Bereasha Washington with Michael Dorko, Ph.D.

Using e-mail DNAs of users to detect spear phishing attacks in the cyberspace
Cadets Jared Johnson and Eric Lilling with Shankar Banik, Ph.D., and Deepti Joshi, Ph.D.

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Citadel professor speaks on Fox & Friends about required Constitution class https://today.citadel.edu/citadel-professor-speaks-on-fox-friends-about-constitution-class/ Sat, 01 Aug 2020 23:08:03 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17479 The head of the Department of Leadership Studies, Faith Rivers James, J.D., spoke with Fox & Friends to discuss The Citadel's required Constitution class.]]>

The head of the Department of Leadership Studies, Faith Rivers James, J.D., spoke with Pete Hegseth on Fox & Friends Saturday morning to discuss The Citadel’s required Constitution class and why it’s important for cadets and students.

In addition to studying the Constitution, the sophomore-level course will also focus on other important documents like the Federalist Papers and the Emancipation Proclamation.

As seen on FOX News

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The Citadel’s commitment to elevating education throughout South Carolina continues https://today.citadel.edu/the-citadels-commitment-to-elevating-education-throughout-south-carolina-continues/ Thu, 30 Jul 2020 23:00:49 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17394 Hundreds of K-12 teachers in South Carolina will be better prepared to educate students in the fall after learning new techniques through the STEM Center.]]>

Photo: South Carolina educators participating in a small session during Computer Science Professional Development Week

College’s STEM Center of Excellence prepares K-12 teachers for enhanced instruction 

When school resumes, hundreds of K-12 teachers in South Carolina will be better prepared to educate their students, whether it be face-to-face, virtually or a combination of the two.

Those teachers will integrate new techniques and concepts into their lessons, learned over the summer from The Citadel’s STEM Center of Excellence (SCE).

In addition to supporting Citadel cadets and students, the SCE serves as a community resource, holding numerous educational events for children annually and providing robust professional development programs for K-12 STEM teachers.

In July, more than 400 teachers participated in two, week-long workshops presented by the SCE. Both were originally planned to be held on campus, but were moved to a virtual format in response to the pandemic.

The goal of both workshops: help teachers inspire and prepare more South Carolina students to pursue STEM-related careers.

Addressing the shortage of computer science teachers

The first workshop involved the SCE’s ongoing work to increase the number of computer science teachers in South Carolina schools.

The SCE offered computer science professional development for nearly 250 teachers, with the goal of ensuring that every high school, and most middle schools, have at least one dedicated computer science teacher.

The South Carolina Department of Education selected the SCE to provide instruction in response to new, stricter guidelines about computer science requirements in South Carolina public high schools.

A teacher using the kits, provided by the STEM Center, to learn about computer science during the Computer Science Professional Development Week

“Now that a keyboarding class no longer counts as computer science credit, 436 high schools have to be able to teach in-depth computer science,” said Jennifer Albert, Ph.D., director of the The Citadel STEM Center of Excellence. “We’ve been working the last two summers with the Department of Education to make sure all of those teachers have the training and the certification needed to teach those classes.”

The experience was free for teachers, thanks to the funding from the state’s Department of Education, as well as a grant from the CS Teachers’ Association.

Infusing computing

The second workshop, held the last week of July, represented the final stage of a multi-million-dollar National Science Foundation grant awarded to the SCE, and project collaborators at North Carolina State University. The goal of the STEM+Computing project was aimed at helping teachers integrate computing and STEM curricula into their classes.

Nearly 200 teachers participated in the event, learning how to blend computational thinking — a problem-solving method that describes problems and their solutions in ways that a computer would understand — into their educational content.

Providing the workshop virtually didn’t faze the SCE director.

“We’ve had to restructure everything get the same, small-group, personal feel,” said Albert. “We had to almost triple the number of session facilitators that we hired this year, because we want them in small groups so they have the same amount of attention that they would have face-to-face.”

In fact, the SCE’s methods for adjusting to a virtual format, as well as more information on the workshop, is included on page 59 of a recent publication in the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education.

The SCE is a collaborative effort between The Citadel’s Zucker Family School of Education, the School of Engineering, and the Swain Family School of Science and Mathematics. It delivers outreach initiatives, like Storm The Citadel and more, to increase student interest, participation, and opportunities in the STEM disciplines.

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Citadel Engineering faculty; alumnus leaders making news with top awards https://today.citadel.edu/citadel-engineering-faculty-leaders-making-news-with-top-awards/ Tue, 28 Jul 2020 23:00:54 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17391 Faculty and an alumnus from The Citadel School of Engineering are the proud recipients of awards from the 2020 American Society of Civil Engineers.]]>

Photo above: Award-winning Volvo interchange engineering project led by Citadel School of Engineering alumnus

The Citadel School of Engineering, consistently ranked as one of the top engineering schools in the country, could not achieve that status time and again without prominent industry faculty leading the way. The results of the 2020 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) awards for the state of South Carolina underscore that point. 

Announced in July, the awardees include two faculty leaders, an alumnus, and a project that alumnus helped lead. 

Le Tellier Cup winner for outstanding lifetime achievement

Col. Ron Welch, USA (Ret.), Ph.D., PE, dean for The Citadel School of Engineering 

Dean of The Citadel School of Engineering, Dr. Ron Welch, accepting Edmund Friedman Professional Recognition Award in 2018

“Dr. Welch has accumulated a highly regarded national reputation for academic excellence continues to play an instrumental role in direction of ASCE’s Project ExCEEd (Excellence in Civil Engineering Education), and is a recognized leader in ASEE (American Society of Engineering Education) Civil Engineering Division.  He has served in academic appointments in higher education over 29 years including faculty and leadership positions at U.S. Military Academy, University of Texas at Tyler, and The Citadel.  His career includes 25 years of service as an Officer in U.S. Army rising to the rank of Colonel, prior to his retirement from the Corps of Engineers in 2007.   

His career includes 25 years of service as an Officer in U.S. Army rising to the rank of Colonel, prior to his retirement from the Corps of Engineers in 2007.  Since his arrival at The Citadel in 2011, Dean Welch has served as a forward-thinking leader of higher education in our state. As a testament to his vision, two new undergraduate degrees were added to The Citadel School of Engineering including Mechanical Engineering and Construction Engineering.  Additionally, he led creation of Master of Science degree programs in Civil, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering.  Through Dean Welch’s strategic leadership, The Citadel’s School of Engineering enrollment has risen to 700 students, comprising approximately one-third of the college’s degree seeking students.”

William J. Davis, Ph.D., P.E., Dept. Head and D. Graham Copeland Professor of Civil Engineering, The Citadel 

In addition to leading the The Citadel School of Engineering, and continuing to teach Civil Engineering cadets and students, Welch has worked as a servant leader in numerous voluntary leadership positions throughout his career. Examples include serving a board member for Engineers Without Boarders and serving ASCE in leadership roles for more than 20 years, including as a program developer and mentor.  

Some of Welch’s other awards include: 

  • ASCE Edmund Friedman Professional Recognition Award, 2018 
  • Bliss Medal, Society of American Military Engineers (SAME), 2018 
  • Pillar of the College, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Tyler, 2017 
  • American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Fellow, 2016 
  • Engineer of The Year, Charleston Engineer’s Joint Council, 2015 
  • Society of American Military Engineers, SAME Fellow, 2015 
  • American Society of Engineering Education, ASEE Fellow, 2015 

Educator of the Year

Kweku Brown, Ph.D.

Dr. Kweku Brown teaching cadets out in the field during a Civil Engineering course in 2019

“Dr. Kweku Brown is an Assistant Professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering at The Citadel. His well-founded educational approaches and effective teaching methods are benefiting students, contributing to the quality of our Department’s learning environment, and embodying the highest ideals of The Citadel’s mission, as a teaching institution.  

His ability to create and support productive student-learning environments is phenomenal. Through his great work ethic and collaboration, he exemplifies how engineers can work together to strive for the highest standards of excellence. He passed his PE exam in 2020 and is in the process of submitting his application.” 

William J. Davis, Ph.D., P.E., Dept. Head and D. Graham Copeland Professor of Civil Engineering, The Citadel 

In 2019, Brown taught 12 sections of 8 Civil Engineering Courses, was selected as a national delegate for the Minority Faculty Development Workshop at Harvard University, and participated in 27 Citadel events and initiatives including Leadership Day and Student Excellence Day. In addition, Brown currently serves as a faculty Advisory for the student chapters of ASCE, the National Society of Black Engineers, and the Institute of Transportation Engineers.  

Brown’s most recent research appointments and recognition include: 

  • Member, Geographic Information Science and Applications, Standing Committee, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, 2014-present
  • Member, Statewide Transportation Data and Information Systems, Standing Committee, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, 2014-present
  • National Committee Member: American Association for State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Geographic Information systems for Transportation (GIS-T), Vice Chair of Student Paper Award Committee 

Brown received his Civil Engineering Bachelor’s degree from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana. His Master’s degree and Doctoral degree were obtained from the University of Connecticut and Clemson University, respectively. Brown is a member of both the National and South Carolina Section of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE). 

Engineer of the Year

Jim O’Connor, The Citadel Class of 1989, JMT engineering, Charleston

Project of the Year 

I-26/Volvo Car Interchange, Jim O’Connor, chief engineer 

Jim O’Connor

Charleston area JMT executive, and a JMT project, have been honored by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) South Carolina Section. Jim O’Connor, PE, CEng MIEI was named Civil Engineer of the Year, and JMT’s I-26/Volvo interchange design-build project was selected as Project of the Year. 

Jim O’Connor is a 1989 Citadel graduate and Vice President in JMT’s Charleston office who is both responsible for the firm’s South Carolina operations and actively participates in complex projects. He also holds an MS from Rutgers University and is a professional engineer in several states, including being a Chartered Engineer in the Republic of Ireland. As an active ASCE member, he serves as a Practitioner Adviser at The Citadel and is a member of the Civil Engineering Department’s Advisory Board. 

As an accomplished structural engineer, O’Connor contributed to the success of several key projects that are helping reshape the infrastructure in South Carolina’s Lowcountry including the award-winning I-26/Volvo interchange, the Port Access Road/I-26 interchange, the historic Low Battery reconstruction, and the Nexans Marine Terminal in the Goose Creek Bushy Park complex. 

Delivered to the South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) in 2019, the new I-26/Volvo Interchange provides critical access from a regional Charleston interstate highway to Camp Hall Commerce Park and the Volvo manufacturing facility. As the lead design firm on this project, JMT provided overall project management along with bridge and roadway design, and environmental services in support of the contractor, Conti Enterprises, Inc. The successful delivery of this project has added substantial value to the greater Charleston coastal community and the state of South Carolina. (Provided by JMT) 

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One of The Citadel’s most in-demand programs gains a new leader https://today.citadel.edu/one-of-the-citadels-most-in-demand-programs-gains-a-new-leader/ Tue, 21 Jul 2020 17:46:59 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17307 The newest faculty member is Larry Valero, Ph.D., who is now head of the Department of Intelligence and Security Studies.]]>

Intelligence and Security Studies now headed by Dr. Larry Valero

Protecting America is a relentless pursuit, requiring continually expanding teams of highly trained intelligence and security professionals.

For example, the Department of Homeland Security says it is fighting COVID-19 fraud on several fronts, including by transnational criminal organizations shipping prohibited medical supplies. 

The National Counterintelligence and Security Center says the areas where “foreign intelligence entities are hitting us the hardest and where we need to devote greater attention” include: critical infrastructure, key U.S. supply chains, the U.S. economy, American democratic institutions, and cyber and technical operations. 

And, when speaking at The Citadel during an Intelligence and Cyber Security conference, former Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats said, “China and Russia are more aligned than at any point since the mid-1950s and the relationships is likely to strengthen,” a statement that appeared in the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.

Dan Coats, former Director of National Intelligence, speaking at the 2018 Intelligence and Cybersecurity Conference at The Citadel

The Citadel is helping meet the need through its burgeoning Intelligence and Security Studies undergraduate and master’s degrees, supported by a growing department. The newest faculty member is Larry Valero, Ph.D., who is now head of the Department of Intelligence and Security Studies.

“As a nation, we face challenges ranging from infectious diseases and other natural hazards, to terrorism, to peer-to-peer conflict on the global stage,” said Valero. “I am delighted to be a part of The Citadel and the talented Department of Intelligence and Security Studies team, educating the next generation of intelligence leaders who will analyze these threats effectively to provide for the security of the United States.”

Valero’s research and teaching interests focus upon U.S. intelligence and national security, strategy, and modern warfare. He holds a Ph.D. in International History from University of Cambridge, an M.A. in War Studies from King’s College London, and a B.A. in Political Science from UCLA

Valero currently serves as an American Council on Education faculty evaluator for military programs in the field of intelligence studies. He was the president for the Association for Intelligence Education from 2014-2019. Additionally, Valero was Scholar in Residence at the National Security Agency, Ft. Meade, Maryland and served on the faculty of the Department of International Security and Military Studies at the U.S. Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. He was honored with the 2011 Outstanding Instructor Award by the International Association for Intelligence Education.

“Professional, educated, and principled intelligence and security experts are critical for the future safety of the United States, and we are confident in the training such future leaders will receive under the skilled direction of Dr. Larry Valero and the rest of the department,” said Brian Madison Jones, Ph.D., dean for The Citadel School of Humanities and Social Sciences. “Larry’s distinguished pedigree, relevant scholarship, and practical experience in program development and funding will be critical assets as we advance our vision for our rapidly growing intelligence and security studies program.” 

Valero moves into the department head role following the retirement of the founder of The Citadel Intelligence and Security Studies programs and department, Carl Jensen, Ph.D. Jensen becomes a professor emeritus for the college as he retires from a career that, in addition to his leadership at The Citadel, included service in the Navy and 22 years of service in the Federal Bureau of Investigation where he was a field agent, supervisory special agent for the Behavior Science Unit, and lead instructor for the FBI National Academy’s terrorism course.

About 315 cadets and evening undergraduates (non-cadets) are currently pursuing a B.A. in Intelligence and Security Studies and approximately 50 graduate students are pursuing an M.A. in Intelligence and Security Studies. For more information, or to apply, visit this website, or call (843) 953-6886.

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Baker School of Business professor published in National Review https://today.citadel.edu/baker-school-of-business-professor-published-in-national-review/ Mon, 13 Jul 2020 13:51:15 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17217 Richard M. Ebeling, Ph.D., is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Ethics and Free Enterprise Leadership in the Tommy and Victoria Baker School of Business.]]>

Photo: Richard M. Ebeling, Ph.D., is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Ethics and Free Enterprise Leadership in the Tommy and Victoria Baker School of Business

As seen in the National Review by Steve H. Hanke and Richard M. Ebeling on July 1, 2020

Thomas Sowell at 90 Is More Relevant Than Ever

Thomas Sowell in a Hoover Institution interview in 2018. (Hoover Institution/via YouTube)

Yesterday, Thomas Sowell turned 90. And he is more relevant than ever. Sowell, a frequent contributor to National Review and prodigious scholar, has delivered yet another insightful and accessible book, Charter Schools and Their Enemies. It was released on his birthday — a gift from Sowell to the rest of us.

In his new book, Sowell puts primary sources and facts under the powerful microscope of his analysis. His findings are, as is often the case, inconvenient, not to say explosive, truths. Indeed, Charter Schools and Their Enemies documents how non-white students thrive in charter schools and close the performance gap with their white peers. It’s no surprise, then, that there are long waiting lists to enter charter schools. So why aren’t there more of them? Well, public schools and their teachers’ unions don’t like the competition. This, of course, traps non-white students in inferior public schools.

Just who is Thomas Sowell and why is he a larger-than-life figure in today’s world? Sowell was born on June 30, 1930, in North Carolina. He grew up in New York City’s Harlem neighborhood and served in the Marine Corps during the Korean War. He earned three economics degrees, one from Harvard (1958), one from Columbia (1959), and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago (1968). After holding down faculty positions at prestigious universities, Sowell settled at Stanford’s Hoover Institution, where he has been for the past 40 years.

As Sowell recounts in his autobiography, A Personal Odyssey (2000), he considered himself a Marxist during most of his student years. Chicago put an end to that infatuation. But Sowell’s study of classical economists included the works of Marx, and in 1985 he published Marxism: Philosophy and Economics. As anyone steeped in Marx knows, all symbols of the capitalist, exploitive past must be uprooted and destroyed before a workers’ paradise can be constructed. It turns out that Marxism is of the moment: Yes, the removal of statues and the changing of street and building names is straight out of Marx’s playbook.

But for those who find Marxism too general and abstract to be relevant for the events of today, we direct you to a treasure trove of books in which Sowell has focused his attention on the problems surrounding race and discrimination both in the United States and around the world. To name just a few of his many works specifically on this theme: Race and Economics (1975), Markets and Minorities (1981), Ethnic America: A History (1981), The Economics and Politics of Race (1983), Preferential Policies (1990), Race and Culture (1995), Migrations and Cultures (1996), Conquests and Cultures (1998), Affirmative Action Around the World (2004), Black Rednecks and White Liberals (2005), Intellectuals and Race (2013), Wealth, Poverty and Politics (2016), and Discrimination and Disparities (2018; rev. ed., 2019).

When analyzing race and discrimination, Sowell relishes going after one of his favorite targets: the intellectual elites, or as he refers to them, “the anointed.” The heart of his message is that men are not born with equal abilities. Contrary to the assertions of the anointed, Sowell argues that “empirically observable skills have always been grossly unequal.” Sowell also argues that not all cultures are equal contributors to world civilization. Indeed, he observes that “differences among racial, national and other groups range from the momentous to the mundane, whether in the United States or in other countries around the world and down through the centuries.” Sowell concludes that the world is culturally complex and filled with variety. We still have little understanding of the causes and consequences of that complexity. But markets tend to harmonize the interests of, or at least minimize the friction between, various peoples and cultures, while politics creates conflict, with advantages for some at the expense of others.

Much of what Sowell has to say about race is contained in his undeniably controversial Black Rednecks and White Liberals, a collection of essays. In the course of a lengthy examination of identity, culture, and its socioeconomic effects, he looks, among other issues, at what he refers to as “black ghetto culture” (something, he stresses more than once, of which “most black Americans” are not a part) and its particular language, customs, behavioral characteristics, and attitudes toward work and leisure. Sowell argues that it has been heavily influenced by earlier white southern “redneck” culture, although, as he is careful to note, this is not a matter of “simple linear extrapolation.” And indeed it is not.

Sowell traces this culture to several generations of Americans mostly descended from immigrants from “the northern borderlands of England . . . as well as from the Scottish highlands and Ulster” who arrived in the southern American colonies in the 18th century. The outstanding features of this redneck or “cracker” culture — as it was called in Great Britain before and during the emigration years — included, Sowell writes, “an aversion to work, proneness to violence, neglect of education, sexual promiscuity, improvidence, drunkenness, lack of entrepreneurship, reckless searches for excitement, lively music and dance, and a style of religious oratory marked by rhetoric, unbridled emotions, and flamboyant imagery.” It also included “touchy pride, vanity, and boastful self-dramatization.” The point to be drawn, he writes, “is that cultural differences led to striking socioeconomic differences among blacks, as they did among whites. In both races, those who lived within the redneck culture lagged far behind those who did not.”

Most of the commercial industriousness and innovation in the South in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Sowell demonstrates, were introduced by businessmen, merchants, and educators who moved there from the North, and especially New England. The culture of work, savings, personal responsibility, and forethought that flourished in the North left the southern United States lagging far behind — a contrast often remarked on by 19th-century European visitors.

Sowell’s tracing of these past differences brings us back to today. On June 5, the American Economic Association (AEA), the premier professional association for economists since its founding in 1885, issued a statement saying that it was time for officers and governance committees within the association to look into racism and racist practices and presumptions within the profession. To that end, the AEA compiled a recommended reading list on race and discrimination. Sowell is nowhere to be found on it. Neither is the late Gary Becker, former president of the AEA, who won a Nobel prize in 1992 for, among other achievements, his pathbreaking work on the economics of discrimination. This is the blinkered world we live in today.

Steve H. Hanke is a professor of applied economics at the Johns Hopkins University and a senior fellow and director of the Troubled Currencies Project at the Cato Institute. Richard M. Ebeling is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Ethics and Free Enterprise Leadership at The Citadel.

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Back on campus: it is our duty to protect ourselves and others from COVID-19 https://today.citadel.edu/back-on-campus-it-is-our-duty-to-protect-ourselves-and-others-from-covid-19/ Sun, 28 Jun 2020 19:02:36 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=17029 Operation Fall Return 2020 sets conditions for cadets and students to return to an adapted face-to-face instruction and training model.]]>

Photo: Citadel President General Glenn M. Walters ’79, USMC (Ret.) helps lay out masks for Facilities and Engineering employees at The Tailor Shop in April 2020

Operation Fall Return is underway. This mission sets conditions for cadets and students to return to an adapted face-to-face instruction and training model. The model is designed to protect the health and safety of our community while providing the impactful education and leadership development experience for which The Citadel is renowned.

But it is going to take the commitment of every person on campus to be sustainable.

Our campus community is well-suited to implementing COVID-19 protection and prevention measures. It is in challenging environments like this one that The Citadel’s structured, disciplined approach pays off. It is the duty of every member of our campus community to follow these measures to protect the health and safety of our community. Remember that we are protecting each other and our ability to operate the college safely — the personification of our Respect core value.

As the pandemic continues across America, many want to know if returning to campus is safe. The answer is yes, with the participation of every person following the right behaviors. Keeping students, faculty, and staff safe and healthy remains the top priority of the college.

There is risk, but it is a manageable risk when each of us understands it is our duty to protect ourselves and others from COVID-19. How everyone behaves in each stage will impact the reopening, and sustained functioning of our campus.

What is expected on campus

We have used expert medical advice to develop precautions prior to returning to campus and while on campus. We need everyone to follow these measures throughout the semester to protect everyone and our ability to operate in person.

This is what is required of every person entering campus:

  • Testing. Diagnostic testing is required for all cadets and students prior to returning. Proof of a negative test, taken at least two weeks prior to the return date will be required upon re-entry with detailed instructions to come.
  • Faculty and staff must sign attestation. This is a document required to be signed by all employees prior to returning to work on campus, attesting that you do not have COVID-19 symptoms and have not been exposed to someone with the virus.
  • Wearing a face covering. At a minimum, face coverings are required in public areas including classrooms, the library, fitness centers, shared hallways, all dining facilities, the bookstore, the Marketplace, barracks quads, the Veterans Center, office lobbies, etc. The nation’s top medical professionals agree that this is the number one measure in reducing the spread of COVID-19. The City of Charleston also requires facemasks be worn in any indoor location.
  • Stringent personal hygiene. Washing hands with soap for a minimum of 20 seconds, frequently throughout the day, is an essential behavior to fight infectious diseases, whether it is COVID, the flu or the common cold.
  • Physical distancing. Whenever possible, people should be spaced 6 feet apart. This applies during cadet formations (just has the Marines did over the summer while using our campus), when in meetings or in almost every instance where people are interacting on campus. Roommates in the barracks will be in close quarters but should stay as far apart as the room allows. We must especially adhere to this in areas where we are most vulnerable to the risk of transmitting and contracting the virus such as while eating, when masks cannot be worn.
  • Contact tracing. When a person on campus tests positive for the virus, contact tracing will be employed to determine who that person was in close contact with, and measures will be taken according to the guidance provided by state health officials.
  • Self-reporting. Any cadets experiencing COVID-19 symptoms should distance themselves from others and report to the Infirmary. Any CGC students or employees with symptoms should stay home, or go home, call their department head or supervisor, and seek a COVID-19 test from one of the many facilities around the city. Those with positive tests will need to quarantine for a minimum of two weeks and should not integrate back into their campus activities until receiving a negative follow up test. Cadets and students will be able to continue their academic requirements remotely should it be needed.

This fall will be unlike any other and we want it to be as productive as possible. Remembering that it is your duty to protect yourself and others from COVID-19, and following these measures will go a long way toward keeping our campus open.

More detailed instructions will be available on the Operation Fall Return 2020 website, in addition to ongoing communications from the Commandant’s Office directly to cadets and parents, and from the CGC to its students.

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Faculty heading into retirement with finesse after decades of leadership https://today.citadel.edu/faculty-heading-into-retirement-with-finesse-after-decades-of-leadership/ Tue, 09 Jun 2020 20:22:12 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=16766 In all, 13 members of The Citadel faculty retired after the 2019-2020 academic year, but their contributions will continue to be felt on campus.]]>

In her almost three decades as a leader at The Citadel, it is unlikely that Dr. Conway Saylor ever envisioned herself dancing with her husband, Dr. Bart Saylor, on the front lawn of the college’s Krause Center building.

Conway Saylor, Ph.D., and her husband, Bart, at socially-distanced parade in honor of her retirement

But that is what they did — along with waving, laughing, cheering, and crying — as members of the campus community drove by the Saylors in decorated automobiles for a socially distanced retirement parade complete with music.

“We just had to find a way to make Dr. Saylor feel special after all she has done for The Citadel. COVID-19 didn’t stop us,” said Christina Soyden Arnold, one of Saylor’s co-workers in the Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics.

Saylor joined The Citadel in 1991 as professor of Psychology. She eventually became director of Service Learning for the Krause Center. In that role, she led the development of the college’s robust program that now garners 30,000 hours of volunteer service annually. Through her work building relationships and supporting more than 35 community partners, Saylor twice led The Citadel to earn the Carnegie Foundation Elective Community Engagement Classification.

Saylor with MLK Picture Award
Saylor at the 2019 MLK Picture Award

In addition to other awards and commendations, in 2019 Saylor was honored for uniting members of the community with the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Picture Awards in Charleston.

“I guess I’m just one of the soldiers trying to get up every day and do my best to be part of the solutions.”

Conway Saylor, Ph.D.

Honoring all 2020 retiring faculty

In all, 13 members of The Citadel faculty retired after the 2019-2020 academic year. Though they spent their final months working remotely due to the pandemic, their departure was and will continue to be felt and their contributions, lasting.

“I am delighted to have an opportunity to recognize the significant contributions of our colleagues who are retiring,” said Sally Selden, Ph.D., provost and dean of The Citadel. “They have made impressive contributions to their academic disciplines while simultaneously teaching and supporting our cadets and students. By awarding these faculty members Emeritus status, The Citadel is conferring an honor to show our respect for a distinguished career. We are grateful for their many years of services and for their impact on The Citadel community.”

Baker School of Business

Mike Barth, Ph.D.

Mike Barth, Ph.D., joined the faculty in 2007. He taught business finance, personal finance, business analytics and risk management. Barth became chair of the Accounting & Finance Department in 2019. Prior to becoming an educator, Barth served in the U.S. Army for nine years, and in the Army Reserves for six years, and as a Senior Research Associate with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners for five years.

Ron Green, Ph.D.

Ron Green, Ph.D., was hired as dean in 2007 and served in that position for six years. During his 13-year tenure at The Citadel, he taught graduate and undergraduate level courses in strategic management, health care management, operations management, and decision science. In addition, Green served as interim dean in 2017-18.

Al Katz, Ph.D.

Al Katz, Ph.D., served as a member of the college’s business faculty for 25 years. During his tenure, he developed several classes including professional selling, relationship marketing and professional development. After being named to fill the Alvah H. Chapman, Jr. Chair in 2008, Katz received the Undergraduate Faculty of the Year Award and was appointed the adult advisor of the Honor Committee.

School of Engineering

Michael Woo, Ph.D.

Michael H. Woo, Ph.D., was a member of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at The Citadel since 1985. His specialty areas included stormwater systems design and management, and hydrology and hydraulics. He earned his Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from Clemson.

School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Carl Jensen, Ph.D.

Dr. Carl Jensen The Citadel

Carl Jensen, Ph.D., was the founding head of the Department of Intelligence and Security Studies. He served in the Navy for five years then enjoyed a 22-year a career in the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a field agent, supervisory agent, and forensic examiner/cryptanalyst. Additionally, Jensen was the lead instructor for the FBI National Academy’s terrorism course for several years. He joined The Citadel in 2017. Jensen has authored and co-authored over 70 books, articles, book chapters, and reviews and earned numerous awards for research and as an educator.

James S. Leonard, Ph.D.

James S. Leonard, Ph.D., joined the English Department at The Citadel in 1983. He has served as a full professor since 1993, including a year as chair of the Faculty Council and ten years as department head. His specialties include American Literature and Critical Theory. He is particularly known for his work on Mark Twain — having served as Editor of the Mark Twain Circular (1987-2008), Managing Editor of The Mark Twain Annual (2004-present), and Managing Editor/Editor-at-Large of the Mark Twain Journal (2012-present). He has also served a two-year term as President of the Mark Twain Circle of America and has co-chaired the quadrennial State of Mark Twain Studies Conference.

Julie Lipovsky, Ph.D.

Dr. Julie Lipovsky, The Citadel

Julie Lipovsky, Ph.D., ABPP, retired at the end of the fall in 2019 after 26 years at The Citadel. A professor of Psychology, Lipovsky served as the first assistant provost for diversity at the college. Her legacy includes developing a Clinical-Counseling graduate program and having led the way for formalized LGBTQ support services. Additionally, Lipovsky served as the co-chair of the college’s Diversity Equity and Inclusion Council, and established and directed a National Coalition Building Institute (NCBI) chapter at the college, teaching hundreds of campus constituents leadership skills to work successfully with diverse populations by creating more inclusive environments.

Bo Moore, Ph.D.

Winfred “Bo” Moore, Ph.D., retires after serving as dean for the School of Humanities and Social Sciences since 2008. After serving in the U.S. Army Signal Corps, Moore joined the faculty of The Citadel in 1976, rising through its ranks as a professor and department head, then finally as dean 12 years ago.

“Dean Moore’s leadership has been an immense asset to The Citadel. He was instrumental in launching initiatives that led to the development of a multitude of new programs including American Government & Public Policy, Oral History, Fine Arts, Overseas Studies, Diversity Education, and Intelligence & Security Studies,” Selden said.

P. Michael Politano, Ph.D.

P. Michael Politano, Ph.D., ABPP, joined The Citadel as a professor of Psychology in 1991. He is a certified school psychologist and a licensed clinical psychologist with Board Certification in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. He directed The Citadel Graduate College Program in School Psychology and served as interim department head two times.

Swain School of Science and Mathematics

Charles Groetsch, Ph.D.

Charles Groetsch, Ph.D., joined The Citadel in 2006 as the founding dean of the School of Science and Mathematics, now called the Swain School of Science and Mathematics. During his career, he served as editor or co-editor of nine academic journals concentrated in mathematics. He was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and recipient of the Mathematical Association of America’s George Póyla Award.

Lyle McAfee, Ph.D.

Lyle McAfee, Ph.D., joined The Citadel as a professor of Chemistry in 1988. He taught general chemistry, in organic chemistry and scientific research.

John I. Moore Jr., Ph.D.

Louis Brems – The Citadel SY 18-19, John Moore, Android App Development, Classroom

John Moore, Ph.D., a former department head for the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, joined The Citadel in 1976 and taught for six years, leaving to work in software engineering and web technologies. He returned to the college in 2003, leading the department for a decade. Moore taught a variety of courses in mathematics and computer science including Data Structures and Algorithms, Compiler Design and Object-Oriented Design Patterns.

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