Faculty & Staff – The Citadel Today https://today.citadel.edu Fri, 15 Oct 2021 17:56:22 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8.1 https://today.citadel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Citadel-Favion-new-150x150.png Faculty & Staff – The Citadel Today https://today.citadel.edu 32 32 144096890 Remembering Sean Robert Kelley, VP for The Citadel Family Association https://today.citadel.edu/remembering-sean-robert-kelley-vp-for-the-citadel-family-association/ Fri, 15 Oct 2021 17:50:36 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27816 One single red candleOne single red candle"Sean was always willing to serve others, was a person you could call on any time, and had an infectious smile."]]> One single red candleOne single red candle

Note: Mr. Kelly, the father of two current cadets, Jack and Brian, served as the vice president for The Citadel Family Association. The Citadel family is deeply sorry for this terrible loss.

“Sean stepped up and volunteered last year when we needed someone to take on the role of vice president and was always happy to help,” said Shannon Hime-Bizzarro, the chair of The Citadel Family Association while speaking to association members on Parents’ Weekend. “That was Sean. When we needed something he got it done with great gusto and a big smile. But his biggest joy was being with his sons and family.”

As seen on TributeArchive.com

It is with deep sadness that we acknowledge the passing of Sean Robert Kelley on September 27, 2021. Sean died doing one of the things he loved – walking his giant joy of a dog, Francis, in Beaufort, SC where he had recently moved. Sean was 56 years old. Sean is survived by his wife of 22 years, Stacey McLean Kelley, and their incredible sons, Jack and Brian, students at The Citadel, as well as scores of friends and family members who are mourning his passing by remembering Sean’s love for people, for his devotion to his family, and for his incredible humor and joy.

Sean was born in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey, November 7, 1964 to the late Francis Robert Kelley and Jacqueline “Jackie” Doody Kelley.  He spent his youth in New Jersey and New York, moving to Atlanta in the 1990s where he met Stacey and many of his lifelong friends. The family moved to New Jersey in 2001 and then to Fort Mill, SC, where they lived for 18 years and were actively involved with school sports, the recovery community, and all things dog rescue. Sean was an avid volunteer with CSCMP, the Fort Mill Wrestling Foundation, the Fort Mill Gridiron Club, Lucky Labs Rescue and most recently, the Citadel Family Association. He was passionate about his involvement with F3 and his 12 step recovery program.

In addition to Stacey, Jack and Brian, Sean has many other family members who are carrying his memory in their hearts, including his sister, Geraldine “Gerry” Maikath, her husband Bruce and their children Kyle (Annie) Maikath and Allison Maikath of Massachusetts and Kevin (Sarah) Maikath of Maine, his in-laws Ed and Judy McLean of Davidson, North Carolina and his sister-in-law, Kristin Allen (John Allen) and their children, Sophie and Ben of Charlotte, North Carolina.

Sean was always willing to serve others, was a person you could call on any time, had an infectious smile, and was persistently convincing in providing welcomed bear hugs to anyone needing one, whether they knew it or not. Despite the tragedy of his untimely death, Sean would want us to celebrate his life and honor his memory by embracing his infectious approach to life filled with the love he showered on his wife, children, and all who knew him. A memorial service will be held at the Palmetto Funeral Home in Fort Mill, South Carolina on Saturday, November 6, visitation from 1-2PM and service at 2. In lieu of flowers, please consider a gift in Sean’s memory to one of the causes he supported, or to the GoFundMe account set up to support the educational goals of his sons.

May his memory be a blessing and comfort to all who knew him.

Citadel cadets, professor launch investigation into impacts of PPE on Charleston marshes https://today.citadel.edu/citadel-cadets-professor-launch-investigation-into-impacts-of-ppe-on-charleston-marshes/ Fri, 15 Oct 2021 13:37:16 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27792 Photograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TVPhotograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TV“It feels like you can have an impact on something you’re going through right now."]]> Photograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TVPhotograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TV

As seen on WCBD-TV, by Forrest Tucker

Photo above by Forrest Tucker, News 2, WCBD-TV

Armed with boots to trench through muddy banks near the Citadel’s campus, senior cadets Douglas Karam and Jerry Higgins installed a project that the pair have been working on for much of the semester.

“The planning and the process of putting it together actually took about six to seven weeks,” said Karam.

The goal of their experiment is to see how face masks, rubber gloves and hand wipes decompose in a salt marsh environment over the next eight months. The personal protective equipment, or PPE, is screwed down on boards that will become submerged during high tides.

“It feels like you can have an impact on something you’re going through right now,” said Karam.

Photograph by Forrest Tucker, News 2, WCBD-TV

The COVID-19 pandemic created a large need for items like masks and wipes and not all of them have been disposed of properly.

According to research from Ocean Asia, an estimated 1.5 billion facemasks may have entered the ocean as plastic litter in 2020.

“There’s a myth that plastic items take decades to centuries to degrade. What we’re finding in the salt marsh environment is that it’s happening a lot quicker,” said Citadel Professor of Biology Dr. John Weinstein.

With the Lowcountry’s environment mostly made up of saltwater marshes, Dr. Weinstein and the cadets think that the PPE will start to degrade into thousands of microplastics in a much shorter amount of time.

“We believe that it will degrade in four weeks. But over time we are going to check it out at four weeks, eight weeks, sixteen weeks, and thirty-two weeks,” said Higgins. “So we will see how it degrades over time, the rate of how it degrades, and how much each product degrades.”

The research will help them gauge the impact PPE pollution has on aquatic life, including seafood caught to be served in restaurants, and humans.

“As far as their life processes and what they ingest (the aquatic life) are surrounded in water. Not only does it affect the aquatic animals, but also the people who are living in this environment,” said Higgins.

A 1,000-year-old battle sparks a fresh war among academics, amateurs https://today.citadel.edu/a-1000-year-old-battle-sparks-a-fresh-war-among-academics-amateurs/ Thu, 14 Oct 2021 12:02:32 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27759 Battle recommenced this year when Mr. Livingston, a professor at The Citadel, South Carolina’s military college, released a book pinpointing Brunanburh as happening on the Wirral Peninsula, near Liverpool.]]>

Brunanburh is ancient history. Yet fighting has intensified about where, exactly, it happened

Note: Michael Livingston, Ph.D., holds degrees in history, medieval studies and English. Two of his books have won Distinguished Book Prizes from the Society for Military History. He is also a novelist. Livingston serves as the Secretary General to the U.S. Commission on Military History. He joined The Citadel as a professor in 2006.

As seen in the Wall Street Journal, by Alistair MacDonald

BARNSDALE, England—Over 1,000 years ago, vast armies from what are now Scotland and Ireland swept into a field here to be defeated by soldiers from the emerging nation of England.

No they didn’t, says Michael Livingston, an American historian, who argues that the battle known as Brunanburh happened some 100 miles west, near Liverpool. Mr. Livingston, though, is flat out wrong, says Damo Bullen, a British music festival organizer turned bookseller, who like many others says the battle happened somewhere else entirely.

In Britain, historians love to fight over battle sites, but few elicit such stridence and obsession as Brunanburh. There are more than 30 proposed locations for the battle, which took place in 937, and helped shape what would become England.

Brunanburh’s important historic role, and a dearth of contemporary sources describing where it happened, have led people to war over its location for centuries, making it one of the fiercest battle battles.

Traditionally the realm of bickering academics, the issue has grown more heated as the internet and social media give a platform for amateur archaeologists and have-a-go historians.

Michael Livingston

Battle recommenced this year when Mr. Livingston, a professor at The Citadel, South Carolina’s military college, released a book pinpointing Brunanburh as happening on the Wirral Peninsula, near Liverpool. Mr. Livingston started delving into Brunanburh over a decade ago and has suffered vitriol for his views ever since, he said, including receiving a death threat.

“I started getting these communications that were strident and extremely angry,” he said. “It was: How dare you Yank, get involved in ‘our history,’ ” he said.

Tensions are clear in polarized online reviews of the book, “Never Greater Slaughter,” where those critical talk of “shoddy research” and a “so-called historian.”

“It’s simple to say that social media and the internet have changed everything, but it’s also simply true,” said Mr. Livingston, who believes the opening up of academic debate is overall a good thing, even if he could do without the nastiness.

His website asks that if people need to contact him: “Please send him a friendly email.”

One non-abusive adversary is Michael Wood. The lauded British historian and TV presenter thinks Mr. Livingston and others arguing for the same battle location are absolutely wrong, and says he’s been subject to hostility from “the Wirral lot” for saying that.

“The whole thing is based on the interpretation of a single place name,” said Mr. Wood, referring to the town of Bromborough in the Wirral.

Mr. Wood first got interested in Brunanburh over 50 years ago, when as a teenager he read a book on the battle. He has a long list of reasons why he believes it most likely happened in the area around Barnsdale, near the northern English town of Doncaster, including its location on a north-to-south thoroughfare and a nearby fort and spring, two things referenced in an account from the time.

Nonsense, says Mr. Livingston. The Wirral fits the logistics and politics of the battle, and is backed up by old sources and artifacts.

Those artifacts are being dug up by Wirral Archaeology, a group of local history enthusiasts, who have found the remains of a belt-strap, weapons and other treasures on what they reckon is the Brunanburh battlefield. These have been sent to a university for testing that could show their age and where they originated.

One member, Peter Jenkins, blames “keyboard warriors” for the attacks against Mr. Livingston and others.

Historians, amateurs and professionals alike, largely agree on this much: The battle happened when Ireland-based Vikings and two kingdoms from around what is now northwest England and Scotland came to destroy Æthelstan, a king who had consolidated his control of much of what became England. They were routed in a blood-drenched fight in which there were “never yet as many people killed before this with sword’s edge,” according to one contemporary account.

But where?

Mr. Bullen, the former music-festival organizer who now runs a bookstore in Scotland, says he often contacts supporters of the Wirral argument. “I said, ‘guys, I am sorry, but you are wrong,’ ” he said of heated discussions. The 45-year-old accuses his adversaries of arrogance.

Mr. Bullen’s interest in archaeology was inspired by watching Mr. Wood’s TV programs as a child. But he dismisses the historian’s theory on Brunanburh as having no depth. “He is a good historian, but he is not a detective,” he said.

Mr. Bullen believes the battle happened near the northern English town of Burnley, pointing to a local hill fort and grave from that era among other evidence. He has written a poem to highlight his claims.

Fathers & princes, kings & sons,

All mingled for the fray,

Death dips & darts, for many hearts

This was their final day.

Britain is pockmarked with battle sites given its long, violent history but pinpointing where any fight happened hundreds of years ago is hard because accounts don’t dwell on location. Place names and topographies can also change, while battlefields were stripped of abandoned weaponry at the time.

Historic England, a government-financed heritage body, has just 47 battlefields in its national register, which requires a site’s provenance to be “securely established.” Brunanburh is not one of them.

For decades historians were convinced where the Battle of Bosworth Field settled a bloody dynastic struggle in 1485, and a large heritage center was built at the site in England’s Midlands region. A recent, more comprehensive study suggests it took place elsewhere.

Mr. Wood says that local pride and the potential for tourism means everyone wants a battle to happen near them.

At Barnsdale, Ashley Tabor was cleaning the gas station he works at when he learned that thousands may have fought and died nearby.

“I’d love it to be local, yes,” he said, looking out across the area, where a busy highway, deserted motel and adult video store now stand.

“Surfing” barnacles research earning Citadel scientist international attention https://today.citadel.edu/surfing-barnacles-research-earning-citadel-scientist-international-attention/ Fri, 08 Oct 2021 21:11:22 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27650 Sea turtle's head with barnacles on itSea turtle's head with barnacles on it"We thought, ‘Ah, these guys are moving around so that they can get close together for reproduction.’"]]> Sea turtle's head with barnacles on itSea turtle's head with barnacles on it

Barnacles can move? Seriously who knew? Apparently not many people.

Research by a marine biologist at The Citadel is popping up science news outlets after his work was published by The Royal Society Publishing. The academic piece is entitled “Five hundred million years to mobility: directed locomotion and its ecological function in a turtle barnacle.”

The abstract states that Professor John Zardus, Ph.D., and his co-authors “confirm that the epizoic sea turtle barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, has evolved the capacity for self-directed locomotion as adults.” 

Yes, the barnacles that spend their lives attached to sea turtles actually move around on the turtle, they are not stagnant. And, according to the research, they often leave behind a little trail of their sticky “cement.”

Recorded Chelonibia testudinaria barnacle movement on plexiglass plate
Courtesy of Benny K.K. Chan and JRI-Chi Lin

“The goal of movement ecology is to determine how, why, where and when organisms move,” said Zardus. “And that’s what we set out to discover with barnacles.”

Here’s a look at two popular magazine articles about the findings.

Some Barnacles Can Move Around to Improve Feeding Position

The Scientist spoke with marine biologist and barnacle researcher John Zardus about why turtle barnacles—previously thought to be immobile—in fact slowly travel. He thinks the answer is food

As seen in The Scientist, by Chloe Tenn

Almost by definition, barnacles are immobile: these crustaceans cluster on surfaces such as whale heads, sea turtle shells, coastal rocks, and ship hulls. Once barnacle larvae mature, they travel on ocean currents in search of an anchoring place, preferentially settling in locations with good water flow, which often happen to be moving marine animals. Barnacles stick to host locations by secreting an adhesive cement, typically from a rigid plate on their undersides, that glues them to the surface. The general consensus has long been that barnacles then remain permanently cemented to their chosen surfaces, never to move again.

But a 2008 paper described an exception in barnacle immobility in the turtle barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. This unexpected observation inspired John Zardus, a marine biologist and professor at The Citadel in South Carolina, and his colleagues to investigate barnacle locomotion on turtle shells. In a study published October 6 in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, they report that not only is Chelonibia testudinaria mobile, but it navigates purposefully toward locations of high water flow where the barnacles can more easily feed.

Barnacles are classified as filter feeders, extending a small fiber-like fan appendage that captures particles and miniscule organisms from the surrounding seawater. They may be able to feed more effectively if they are positioned so that currents push food particles into their fan. Zardus and colleagues hypothesized that Chelonibia testudinaria position themselves to capture more food, and tested this idea in multiple aquarium tanks around the world. The researchers observed that the barnacles moved up to 78.6 mm over the course of a year and could change directions. They also found that the barnacles situated on turtle shells tended to move toward the turtle’s head, against the flow of water that passes as the turtle swims, which would give them access to stronger currents and thus more food.

The Scientist spoke with Zardus about why it matters that these barnacles can move around, and how these slow-moving animals travel over turtle shells.

The Scientist: What interested you in studying animal mobility?

John Zardus: I was originally interested in barnacles that live on other animals. My real question was, how did these barnacles find the host that they have to live on? There are some [barnacles] that are specialized for sea turtles, some for whales. It was just by accident that we came across this species that moves. We weren’t the first ones to discover this. There was a paper published in 2008 by Julia Moriarty. She had contacted me and sent me some photographs, asking, ‘Can barnacles that live on turtles move around?’ I answered, ‘No, no, barnacles don’t do that. Once they’re stuck, they’re there.’ She sent these photos of a time series of turtles over time with barnacles on them. She was using the barnacles to keep track of which turtle was which. She realized that the barnacles seemed to be moving. When I looked at her pictures, I was really blown away by it. We’ve been looking at how that phenomenon could happen ever since. We finally were able to conduct some laboratory experiments that completely confirmed it, and then started asking questions about why they do it.

TS: According to the paper, the study finds barnacles have directed movement for feeding purposes. Could you expand on what this means about the current understanding of barnacles?

JZ: You have to understand a little bit about how a barnacle operates. Basically, they’re like a shrimp in a shell, living upside down, with their head pointed down, and they kick their legs out to capture food. They’re filter feeders, feeding on whatever’s in the plankton. When they attach to a turtle, probably the big benefit [of attaching] is feeding currents. If you take a barnacle, and it’s living in still water, it will take its appendages and stroke them through the water very actively. But once you provide some flow, then they’ll just sit there and passively capture their food. It’s much easier for them to do. They don’t have to expend any energy. This species and others that live on mobile hosts are probably taking advantage of the flow for feeding.

The bottom [of a barnacle shell] is very flat. They sit right on the surface. How does it [move around]? It doesn’t have little legs down there. We don’t know how it’s doing it. We just know that it is [moving] very slowly. It takes weeks or months for it to travel any significant distance. Most barnacles, on their bottom, secrete a basal plate that is made of calcium carbonate, and it’s solid. But this one doesn’t. It has a membrane. There’s a few [barnacles] that are like this with a soft bottom. We’re pretty sure that that’s an important component of the movement.

TS: What surprised you about this ability of barnacles?
JZ: We were pretty sure it was reproduction, but we were wrong. It turned out to be for feeding.

Let me tell you a little about reproduction in barnacles. They are mostly hermaphroditic. They have both male and female components, but they can’t fertilize themselves. They need to have a neighbor. It’s very typical for barnacles to live in clusters so that they can fertilize their neighbor next door. They have direct insemination, with the world’s largest penis per body size. They reach out and copulate with their next-door neighbors. We thought, ‘Ah, these guys are moving around so that they can get close together for reproduction.’

We set up some experiments where we put them in different arrangements, tightly clustered together or separated far apart. We figured that in the ones that were separated far apart, that over time, they would move closer together. But they didn’t. They ended up moving randomly. Only when we put flow on them from the jet in the aquarium did they start moving, and they moved towards the flow.

When you looked at them on sea turtles in the wild, they were mostly moving toward the head of the turtle or towards the anterior part of the turtle shell. That’s going to put them in higher flow. It seems to be that they’re really responding to flow, and that is probably more for feeding, and they don’t seem to be doing it so much for reproduction.

I also have another study that’s in press right now with this species demonstrating that it’s the only barnacle we know of that does not do active feeding. If you give them no flow, a barnacle will typically stroke its appendages to get food. If you put this one with no flow, it does nothing. It’ll die. It will never even actively feed. It relies 100 percent on passive feeding, so it really has to be in a high flow environment all the time. Which makes sense if you’re living on a turtle—you’re going to get a lot of flow.

One of the reasons it might not be so concerned about getting close together with other individuals is [this barnacle] has dwarf males that live attached to it. They’re really tiny, only a few millimeters in size, and a single hermaphrodite . . . may have 30 to 40 of what they call complemental males. They’re tiny individuals and they live in these crevices. They specifically settle in there and then they just provide sperm to the central hermaphrodite. If [the hermaphrodites are] carrying their own males, they probably don’t care if they’re near a neighbor or not because they’ve already got what they need. This one has a really cool biology. All sorts of interesting things going on.

TS: When you were observing these barnacles in the aquariums, were there any challenges that arose with the experiments?
JZ: We had to figure out how to get them attached to surfaces in the lab. We tried two approaches in my lab here in South Carolina. I started raising them from the larval stage, and I could get them to attach onto PVC pipe, and then grow them in the lab just fine. But for whatever reason, those that lived on PVC didn’t move.My colleague in Taiwan, Benny Chan, tried a different approach. He found some crabs that this barnacle was living on. He would catch the crabs, bring them into the lab, euthanize the crabs, cut the crab shell around the base of the barnacle, and then let it sit for a few days until the crab shell dissolved. Once it was dissolved, he could take the barnacle that was intact and healthy, put it onto a plexiglass panel, and let it sit for a few days. It would create some new glue and cement itself onto it. That was the real success. Once we got those glued onto glass panels, those were the ones that we could put into flow and move them around from aquarium to aquarium for the different experiments and do time lapse studies on them.

TS: Do you think that your findings could be extended to perhaps other types of barnacles or sessile animal models?
JZ: I think we should certainly look for it. I don’t think we’re going to find it happening very much. Do I think other barnacles are doing this? I doubt it. Maybe under very special circumstances. We would need to look at those. I think some of the prerequisites for this guy to move is it’s got this very flat, broad base with a membranous bottom. There aren’t too many barnacles that are like that. Those would be the candidates that I think we might look at.

Regarding other animals, there was a recent paper that came out about some deep-sea sponges that they found moving. Again, they don’t know how, but they could see tracks in the sediment or on the surface where the sponges had travelled. That was unexpected. I think it would be interesting to look in other places, but I don’t think it’s going to be widespread phenomenon.

Citadel Professor John Zardus, Ph.D. working with a sea turtle during his research on the epizoic sea turtle barnacle.

TS: Where do you see the future of the research going? What would you like to explore next with these barnacles?
JZ: I think the big question people really want to know is, how do they do this? What’s the mechanism? That’s where we’re headed. We don’t have a lot of tangible evidence for how it’s happening right now.

TS: Do you have any ideas or any suspicions of how barnacles could be moving?
JZ: I think it’s got to do with the glue. Barnacles, when they first attach to the substratum—almost all species—they start secreting a glue that permanently fixes them in place, and then they continue to secrete that glue throughout their lifetime as they get larger and larger. This one’s doing the same thing, but it must also be dissolving its glue. We want to look at that and see if somehow the glue is being laid down, then the animal is somehow severing that connection, and then reapplying the glue in periodic intervals.

We also want to examine this glue more carefully. We know that it looks a little different from some of the other glues we’ve seen in barnacles. It gets put down in different layers and the composition is different just looking under the electron microscope. That’s never been reported in barnacle glue before. That’s one part that we think is going to be important to figuring out.

Also reported on Science.org

It moves! Supposedly immobile barnacles can ‘surf’ across turtle shells
By Rachel Fritts

Courtesy of Prof. John Zardus, Ph.D., The Citadel Department of Biology

Barnacles are notoriously clingy creatures. The filter-feeding crustaceans—familiar sights on rocky shores or the hulls of boats—were long thought to be completely immobile. But a new study has confirmed that at least one species, which settles on top of sea turtle shells, can slide across surfaces to places where it’s easier to snag a snack.

Chelonibia testudinaria live predominantly on the backs of sea turtles and occasionally hitch rides on other seafaring creatures like manatees and crabs. Whereas their larval forms swim freely, adults cement themselves to a surface, where they were believed to hold fast for life. But in the early 2000s, researchers found there might be a little more wiggle room than previously thought: C. testudinaria barnacles on wild green sea turtles seemed to move around on the turtles’ shells, often against the current, over a period of months.

In 2017, other scientists tracked 15 barnacles’ movements on an acrylic surface in a lab (see video, above). After 1 year of observations, they found the barnacles used incremental secretions of their cement to “surf” to a new position, they report today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society: B. They suspect the barnacles are after food, as they moved toward areas of higher water flow—which carry more food particles—when exposed to a current.   

The barnacles won’t be winning any races—they averaged a distance of about 7 millimeters over 3 months, with one barnacle moving 8 centimeters over 1 year. But scientists say this is still a notable feat for a group of animals once considered incapable of relocating.

Remembering Professor Chris Fudge at The Citadel https://today.citadel.edu/remembering-professor-chris-fudge-at-the-citadel/ Mon, 04 Oct 2021 18:36:57 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27467 Professor Chris Fudge addressing incoming freshmen during The Citadel Summer Success Institute in August 2021Professor Chris Fudge addressing incoming freshmen during The Citadel Summer Success Institute in August 2021"I worked closely with Chris and I have never known a more fearless advocate for students."]]> Professor Chris Fudge addressing incoming freshmen during The Citadel Summer Success Institute in August 2021Professor Chris Fudge addressing incoming freshmen during The Citadel Summer Success Institute in August 2021

Photo above: Professor Chris Fudge addressing incoming freshmen during The Citadel Summer Success Institute in August 2021

Campus Community,

It is with a sad and heavy heart that I share with you the passing of a very beloved Citadel professor and colleague, Chris Fudge.

From the time she arrived on our campus in 2000, Chris Fudge worked tirelessly to add value to the educational experiences of Citadel cadets. In her early years, she served first as Assistant Director and later Director of what we then called the Writing Center (precursor of the Student Success Center). In that role, she recruited and trained both professional and student tutors to work with cadets to improve their writing skills. She also taught English 101 during that time.

She then was asked to join the Office of the Associate Provost for Academic Affairs, where she developed the extensive curriculum we now use for the LDRS 101 course, a college success course which all freshmen take. She authored the first textbook for that course designed specifically for Citadel students, and she took on the responsibility of recruiting and training faculty from every department across the campus to teach in this important program. The results of her efforts were quite impressive: the average Grade Point Ratio for Citadel freshmen improved significantly just one year after that course was implemented, and freshmen now benefit each year from the fruits of her labors.

“I was fortunate to co-teach the freshmen seminar course with Chris and learned firsthand how very passionate and dedicated Chris was to helping her students learn and ultimately succeed,” said Diana Cheshire, Assistant Provost for Teaching and Learning.

Several years ago, Chris was asked to take over the supervision of our already very good CSI (Citadel Success Institute) summer program for entering cadets. Under her leadership, new courses were added to the list of choices incoming freshmen could take for credit before they matriculated in August. She also worked with the Commandant’s Office to develop a comprehensive physical training program to ensure that incoming freshmen would be ready for the physical challenges of entering the Corps, and she added field trips and other activities on weekends, which involved community service or team-building while also giving CSI students a chance to learn more about the Charleston area.

“I worked closely with Chris and I have never known a more fearless advocate for students. She often worked into the evening helping her students with academics or other concerns on campus,” shared Todd Shealy, Student Services Manager.

After seeing an example of a Curriculum Map for Majors developed by the Department of Civil Engineering, Chris realized that every major on campus could benefit from having that sort of easy-to-follow diagram of what courses students needed to take when. She worked with every Department Head to develop similar diagrams for every major we offer at The Citadel. All of those are now readily available on our website for students and faculty members to use for student advising each semester.

“Chris truly believed in every student’s potential. At every point in her 21-year career at The Citadel, she was a champion of any change that would help students succeed. Her impact on student programming will have a lasting effect on the College,” said Kevin Bower, Associate Provost for Academic Affairs.

Chris also developed the first webpage designed specifically for parents of cadets to answer their questions about cadet life and experiences. She spent endless hours on the phone reassuring worried parents, answering their questions and easing concerns.

She led the company adviser program, which involved recruiting and training company advisors. Additionally, she was the adviser for 3rd Battalion and Lima Company. Chris was a friend and mentor to cadets and colleagues alike.

“Last but not least, Chris and her husband, Royce ’70 and ‘81, served as Freshman Sponsors for a large number of out-of-state cadets, giving them a “home away from home” they could visit on the weekends. In that role, she did everything from providing home-cooked meals to giving free access to her washer and dryer. The relationships she developed with cadets in that role lasted for many years after “her freshmen” had graduated,” shared Mark Bebensee, former Provost and Professor Emeritus.

“As everyone who ever worked with her knew, Chris Fudge was a vigorous, hard-driving individual.  There was nothing laid-back or easy-going about her.  But it was that hard-charging, “never take no for an answer” personality that enabled her to do so much good for the young men and women of the Corps of Cadets,” shared David Allen, former Associate Provost for Academic Affairs and Professor Emeritus. Day after day, year after year, Chris did everything she could to help cadets overcome the hurdles—academic and otherwise—The Citadel put before them.  She cajoled and encouraged, and she pushed them to persevere and do better.  The success of our graduates, of all those alumni whom she helped when they were discouraged cadets, is Chris’s lasting legacy.

Chris Fudge embodied our mission to educate and develop principled leaders. She will be greatly missed.


Sally Selden, Ph.D., SPHR, The Citadel Provost and Dean of the College

This photograph represents just a fraction of the cadets and students positively impacted by Fudge, an educator since 1973, who described her passion as “centering around student success in writing as well as learning.” The event, organized and directed by Fudge, was part of a program she managed called The Citadel Success Institute. On July 14, 2021, Fudge arranged for Vietnam Medal of Honor recipients Michael Thornton, Sammy Davis and Harold Fritz to address the college’s incoming cadet-recruits.

Information about a memorial service to be added when available.

Head of Leadership Studies included as expert in USA Today article https://today.citadel.edu/head-of-leadership-studies-included-as-expert-in-usa-today-article/ Tue, 28 Sep 2021 18:17:49 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27176 Professor Faith Rivers James, The CitadelProfessor Faith Rivers James, The Citadel"Many Black farmers and other groups who have experienced historic discrimination have inherited heirs’ property." ]]> Professor Faith Rivers James, The CitadelProfessor Faith Rivers James, The Citadel

Note: Professor Faith Rivers James, J.D., is the Assistant Provost for Leadership at The Citadel, and the head of the Department of Leadership Studies. Rivers James, who holds a J.D. from Harvard Law School, and an A.B. from Dartmouth College, practiced legislative law in Washington D.C. She is an expert on leadership, public policy, legislative process and property law.

Black farmers accuse the USDA of racism. The USDA appears to agree and vows to address ‘historical discrimination.’

Synopsis of article from USAToday.com
By Mark Dovich, Jeff A. Chamer and Hazel Tang 

WASHINGTON – The Department of Agriculture launched a commission Friday aimed at addressing “historical discrimination” in agriculture, a sign the USDA is looking to overcome a decades-long history of systemic racism that Black farmers say has shrunk their numbers and kept families from building generational wealth.

The Equity Commission will help identify USDA programs and policies that have contributed to, exacerbated or perpetuated discrimination, the department said.

“The truth is, the deck has been stacked against Black farmers who for generations have been denied access to land and capital,” Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack said in a statement to USA TODAY.

He vowed a “top to bottom” evaluation of decades-old farm programs to ensure they “more equitably serve” American farmers. 

Black farmers account for only 1.4% of all U.S. farmers, farm only 0.5% of the country’s farmland and generate only 0.4% of total U.S. agricultural sales every year. In contrast, about 14% of all U.S. farmers in 1920 were Black, according to that year’s agriculture census.

Full article on USAToday.com at link above. Contributions by Professor Faith Rivers James are below.

Keeping farms in the family

Another stumbling block to supporting Black farmers: keeping farms in the family.

At issue is a legal term called heirs’ property. The term refers to land inherited by the descendants of a property owner without any form of legal documentation of ownership. The heirs “hold title as tenants in common, but that interest is only conceptual,” explained Faith Rivers James, assistant provost for leadership at The Citadel military college and an expert on heirs’ property.

Because the land has not been divided, no single person can claim a specific part of it.

The problem’s roots go back more than a century, Rivers James said.

“The unique challenge in the Southern states [where most Black farmers live] is that much of the property was acquired during Reconstruction, at which time there were not sufficient lawyers to assist landowners in drafting wills,” Rivers James said. “So subsequently, without access to lawyers for estate planning, a great deal of land in the South was transferred [without wills] and is now heirs’ property.”

That’s pushed many heirs out of agriculture. Black farmers lost upward of 90% of their land from 1910 to 1997, according to agriculture censuses.

Rivers James called heirs’ property issues “a vestige of segregation and discrimination in its worst form.”

In July, the USDA announced it would provide $67 million in loans to help address long-standing heirs’ landownership issues and allow Black farmers to keep land in their families.

“Many Black farmers and other groups who have experienced historic discrimination have inherited heirs’ property,” Vilsack said in a statement at the time. “USDA is committed to revising policies to be more equitable and examining barriers faced by heirs’ property owners is part of that effort.” 

The $67 million is intended to help heirs receive recognition as landowners. The loan program is a “very much needed” step to solve a “systemic issue,” said Cornelius Blanding, the executive director of the Federation of Southern Cooperatives, a Georgia-based nonprofit group.

The program will “play a huge role in starting to clear up this heirs’ property issue in communities around the United States in general, and in the Black community specifically,” he said.

Helping heirs acquire clear title to their land is “the only way to open doors for growth and to be able to hand that property on to their family members,” Rivers James said.

“After all,” she said, “a great portion of these challenges arose because of government policies and state land laws that impaired this form of African American landownership.”

Voices from Afghanistan: A serviceman and veterans reflect on the 20-year war https://today.citadel.edu/voices-from-afghanistan-a-serviceman-and-veterans-reflect-on-the-20-year-war/ Mon, 27 Sep 2021 18:25:59 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27112 Jacob Hagstrom, Ph.D., interviewed in this article, is a professor with The Citadel's Department of History. ]]>

Note: Jacob Hagstrom, Ph.D., interviewed in this article, is a professor with The Citadel’s Department of History. Hagstrom, a graduate of the United States Military Academy West Point, joined The Citadel in 2020 and teaches Leadership in Military History and History of the U.S. Military.

As heard on South Carolina Public Radio, by Victoria Hansen

Excitement mixes with exhaustion as Major Phil Compton wraps up a mission in New Jersey. The operations flight commander with the 628th Civil Engineer Squadron at Joint Base Charleston has been busy, very busy.

“It’s a personal mission to go to Afghanistan and do what we do,” says Maj. Compton. “A lot of us embrace that.”

A Mission of Hope – A Serviceman’s Story

Compton was deployed in 2011 he says to teach Afghans in Kabul how to build a sustainable model for their bases. He returned in 2018 as part of the Afghanistan-Pakistan Hands program learning valuable cultural and language skills to bridge the efforts between the military and Afghans.

That’s when he worked closely with interpreter Zamzama Safi.

“When I met her, it was very clear she had gone through some trauma,” says Maj. Compton.

Safi was kidnapped for three days, tortured and raped by the Taliban when she was 15 years-old. Compton and his colleagues feared for her life when Kabul fell to the Taliban in August shortly after U.S. forces pulled out. He was one of the first she contacted after safely evacuating.

“In my heart and mind, she represents like the resiliency of most Afghans that I’ve worked with,” says Maj. Compton.

“They can go through some tremendous trauma and turn around and smile at you and hope for a better future.”

Compton sees that same hope on the faces of Afghan refugees arriving in New Jersey.

The 35-year-old grandson of Mexican immigrants tells them in Dari, “Day by Day a new life will be made.”

As Compton focuses on hope, many Americans struggle to understand the 20-year war in Afghanistan. What did it accomplish if the Taliban could quickly regain control, and at what cost?

Nearly 2,500 American service members and 4,000 U.S. contractors were killed. The monetary price tag is estimated at more than $2.3 trillion.

Another Mistake – A Veteran’s View

“All those years of money and sacrifice by the American people were literally in vain,” says Gerald Mahle of Beaufort.

The 77-year-old was deployed in 2002 as a civil affairs Sergeant in the Army.

“If you want to explain Afghanistan, just look at Vietnam,” says Mahle. “It’s just a mirror image. We did the exact things wrong 30 years later.”

Mahle believes the U.S. should have left when Osama Bin Laden was killed, arguing what he saw of Afghanistan wasn’t really a country, but fragmented tribes in conflict with one another. He says America has no business imposing its values on others.

“Who are we to tell them they need to have Democracy,” he says. “They were fighting and killing each other for the last thousand years.”

“I think everyone has an individual story to tell and it’s based on these local things that aren’t necessarily replicated elsewhere,” says Citadel professor Dr. Jacob Hagstrom.

Hagstrom was deployed too, in 2011 as an Army field artillery officer with the 25th Infantry Division.

He’s learning much of politics is local as he pieces together the stories of other veterans and former leaders in Afghanistan as part of an oral history project.

What Can We Learn – A Professor’s Project

Dr. Hagstrom says Americans there after 2014 were likely aware deals were being made between the Taliban and Afghan elders, but they weren’t privy to those agreements.

That’s why, he says partnership are critical. They help overcome barriers in language, culture and history.

“If people in the United States had understood the history of Afghanistan from the beginning, I think we would have been a lot more wary about committing to a long-term military engagement there.”

For us, the mission to find those responsible for September 11th and prevent future terrorist attacks was the beginning of a 20-year war. But for Afghanistan, it was another battle in an ongoing, generational, civil war.

Dean Evan Ortlieb named to 2021 class of Forty under 40 https://today.citadel.edu/dean-evan-ortlieb-named-to-2021-class-of-forty-under-40/ Sun, 19 Sep 2021 10:00:00 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=26825 The Charleston Regional Business Journal has announced the 2021 class of Forty Under 40 honorees, including Dean Evan Ortlieb.]]>

Note: Evan Ortlieb, Ph.D., is the dean of the Zucker Family School of Education.

As seen in the Charleston Regional Business Journal, by Andy Owens

The Charleston Regional Business Journal announces the 2021 class of Forty Under 40 honorees today.

Each year, the Business Journal and its sponsors and partners recognize the Forty Under 40 during a special event and awards ceremony. Profiles of the individual honorees also are published in a special print section of the Business Journal.

The annual awards recognize the professional success and community involvement of 40 professionals under age 40 who are making their mark on the region from a mix of industry, professional and community sectors.

Nominations are submitted by individuals, businesses, organizations and colleagues. Judges independently score the nominations, and 40 emerge from the pool of candidates for the final list of honorees.

The Forty Under 40 Class of 2021 will be featured in a special section of the Aug. 23 edition of the Charleston Regional Business Journal.

A special event will be held live from 6-8:30 p.m., Sept. 30 at the Charleston Gaillard Center. Click here for ticket information.

Riley’s “Making of the International African American Museum” course airing on C-SPAN https://today.citadel.edu/rileys-making-of-the-international-african-american-museum-course-airing-on-c-span/ Thu, 16 Sep 2021 15:00:19 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=26724 Citadel cadets enrolled in the course “The Why and the How: The Making of the International African American Museum,” tour the site of the International African American Museum with Professor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., the former Mayor of Charleston, on Tuesday, February 2, 2021. Dr. Elijah Heyward, the museum’s Chief Operating Officer, led the tour of the museum, which is slated to open in 2022. (Photo by Cameron Pollack / The Citadel)Citadel cadets enrolled in the course “The Why and the How: The Making of the International African American Museum,” tour the site of the International African American Museum with Professor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., the former Mayor of Charleston, on Tuesday, February 2, 2021. Dr. Elijah Heyward, the museum’s Chief Operating Officer, led the tour of the museum, which is slated to open in 2022. (Photo by Cameron Pollack / The Citadel)The course featured leading global figures Riley engaged to contribute what Riley calls "the under-told stories of African American experiences."]]> Citadel cadets enrolled in the course “The Why and the How: The Making of the International African American Museum,” tour the site of the International African American Museum with Professor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., the former Mayor of Charleston, on Tuesday, February 2, 2021. Dr. Elijah Heyward, the museum’s Chief Operating Officer, led the tour of the museum, which is slated to open in 2022. (Photo by Cameron Pollack / The Citadel)Citadel cadets enrolled in the course “The Why and the How: The Making of the International African American Museum,” tour the site of the International African American Museum with Professor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., the former Mayor of Charleston, on Tuesday, February 2, 2021. Dr. Elijah Heyward, the museum’s Chief Operating Officer, led the tour of the museum, which is slated to open in 2022. (Photo by Cameron Pollack / The Citadel)

Photo above: Citadel cadets and students enrolled in the course “The Why and the How: The Making of the International African American Museum” tour the site of the museum with Professor Joseph P. Riley Jr., the former Mayor of Charleston, on February 2, 2021.

First recorded class session airing Sept. 18

The International African American Museum (IAAM) in Charleston is expected to open in 2022. The founder and champion of the IAAM, former Charleston Mayor Joseph P. Riley Jr., is a professor at The Citadel and a member of The Citadel Class of 1964.

Class segments from one of Riley’s courses, co-designed and taught by Kerry Taylor, Ph.D., a professor in The Citadel Department of History, are being broadcast by the C-SPAN American History TV channel, beginning on Sept. 18. “The why and the how: The making of the International African American Museum” recorded class sessions will also be available on the C-SPAN American History TV website.

Riley was mayor for 40 years and a career-long civil rights activist, serving as one of the most important figures in American municipal government. After retiring from public office, he assumed the position at The Citadel as the first person to serve in a professorship named for him: the Joseph P. Riley Jr. Endowed Chair of American Government and Public Policy Professor.

Here is a description from C-SPAN.org:

The International African American Museum in Charleston, South Carolina is slated to open its doors in the summer of 2022. We sat in on a course at the The Citadel looking at how and why the museum came into existence. Former Charleston Mayor Joseph Riley — who first proposed the idea for the museum more than 20 years ago — co-taught the course with history professor Kerry Taylor. Their guest speaker for this class session was Smithsonian Secretary Lonnie Bunch, who shared his experiences as the founding director of the National Museum of African American History and Culture. The Citadel provided this video.


The course, taught mostly remotely in the spring of 2021, featured leading global figures Riley engaged to contribute what Riley calls “the under-told stories of African American experiences.”

The cadets and students in Riley’s class also toured the IAAM construction site, led by Riley.

“The International African American Museum site is sacred ground. The location was crucial because every day it is painfully evident that America continues to be fractured by our structural defect resulting from the days of enslaved Africans. This fissure exists because we Americans do not know this important part of our country’s history,” Riley said in response to being asked a about why he developed the course.

For Riley, an IAAM board member, the museum represents an extension of his political commitments, dating back at least to the time of his first mayoral election in 1975.

A clip of the first class shown, featuring the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Lonnie Bunch III, is below.

Commentary: The heat we’re now experiencing is a bit different https://today.citadel.edu/commentary-the-heat-were-now-experiencing-is-a-bit-different/ Tue, 07 Sep 2021 19:12:31 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=26438 unsplash photo of bright hot sununsplash photo of bright hot sun"In October, the results of the research will be presented to help Charlestonians better understand the extent of their urban heat challenges..."]]> unsplash photo of bright hot sununsplash photo of bright hot sun

As seen in The Post and Courier, By Janice Barnes and Leo Temko

Charleston punches above its weight. We all know that the city is a regional leader with its excellent health care and educational institutions, its beautiful historic architecture, its easy access to extraordinary beaches and other natural environments, and its many business opportunities.

What may be less known is that it also leads with one of South Carolina’s first All Hazards Vulnerability Assessments, a key tool to help cities better understand all of their expected risks, with its compelling work on the Dutch Dialogues, which tackled one of those risks, flooding, and with its recently adopted Climate Action Plan.

Pretty impressive for a city of 140,000-plus people, or even a region of 800,000-plus people. Many much larger cities have made far less progress on these challenging issues.

Charleston’s next step, as mentioned in The Post and Courier’s Aug. 29 editorial, is to tackle another of its key risks: extreme heat.

As Southerners, we tend to wear our heat hardiness as a badge of honor, kind of like an old-time Northerner describes walking to school barefoot in the snow as a child. But the heat we’re now experiencing is a bit different than it used to be, with more consecutive days of extreme heat and humidity each year — and with extreme heat arriving earlier in the spring and lasting longer into the fall.

Our electricity use is up along with the number of days that require air conditioning for us to be comfortable. Unfortunately, heat exposure also increases heat-related mortality and worsens other health conditions like cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, which are particularly trying during pandemics like we’re experiencing with COVID-19. Recognizing the challenge, Charleston is once again stepping forward to lead.

This summer, Charleston hosted three research teams, including significant local volunteer participants, to collect data on extreme heat around the city. One team, led by Dr. Kirstin Dow with the University of South Carolina, focused on outdoor workers at MUSC and The Citadel and their physical reactions to extreme heat.

Another, led by Dr. Chip Konrad of the University of North Carolina, focused on the monitoring of local variations in heat stress, similar to The Citadel’s monitoring of cadet training, or what high school football coaches use to monitor practice.

A third team focused on Charleston’s NOAA-sponsored HeatWatch campaign, capturing heat index readings and collecting thermal images across the Charleston region. Led by our firm, Climate Adaptation Partners, this effort was done with the city’s Office of Resilience and Sustainability, The Citadel’s Near Center for Climate Studies, the MUSC Arboretum, MUSC’s Office of Health Promotion and Office of Sustainability, the Charleston Resilience Network, the South Carolina Aquarium, the South Carolina Medical Professionals for Climate and Health, the South Carolina Interfaith Power and Light, and importantly, with the help of over 20 local volunteers.

All three research campaigns were completed during July when Charleston was experiencing one of its worst heat waves. In October, the results of the research will be presented to help Charlestonians better understand the extent of their urban heat challenges and to begin conversations about ways to improve the situation.

Recently, Charleston included extreme heat in its update to its comprehensive plan, a first step toward addressing the problem. The next step is to use the research findings to guide investments in heat reduction along with Charleston’s other planned investments on flooding, transportation improvements, carbon reduction and the many private investments that the metro area growth introduces.

For example, with the upcoming improvements to Charleston’s public housing, how might those better address extreme heat exposures for those residents? How might the Lowcountry Rapid Transit system include shading for each station and choose materials that are cooler to the touch?

As we build more homes and upgrade our existing ones, how might we improve insulation and reduce air conditioning requirements? If we include heat mitigation in these investments, we know that we can have multiple benefits from each dollar spent.

We can invest to capture water and cool down our communities. We can improve connectivity and make waiting at the bus stop more comfortable. We can lower our emissions and our energy bills.

We can do this because we punch above our weight. We see the challenge and we’ll tackle it, head-on, and in this case, hat on.

Stay cool out there.

Leo Temko and Dr. Janice Barnes are with Climate Adaptation Partners. Also contributing to this column were Mark Wilbert with the city of Charleston; Dr. Scott Curtis of The Citadel’s Near Center for Climate Studies; Dr. Kristin Dow of the University of South Carolina; Dr. Chip Konrad of the University of North Carolina; and Drs. Jerry Reves and Susan Johnson and Christine von Kolnitz of MUSC.