Academics – The Citadel Today https://today.citadel.edu Fri, 15 Oct 2021 20:15:54 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8.1 https://today.citadel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Citadel-Favion-new-150x150.png Academics – The Citadel Today https://today.citadel.edu 32 32 144096890 My Ring Story: Remember your “why” https://today.citadel.edu/my-ring-story-remember-your-why/ Fri, 15 Oct 2021 20:11:21 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27854 Meet Jerry Eugene Higgins III, Class of 2022 Jerry Higgins is a cadet-athlete from Cleveland, Ohio, who is majoring in Biology. He is a basketball player and has received gold]]>

Meet Jerry Eugene Higgins III, Class of 2022

Jerry Higgins is a cadet-athlete from Cleveland, Ohio, who is majoring in Biology. He is a basketball player and has received gold stars for academic achievement. After graduation Higgens plans to attend medical school and become a physician.

Q. What is engraved on the inside of your ring and what is its significance?

A. I put two phrases inside my ring. The first is “Remember Your Why.” That will be a constant reminder to strive for greatness in everything I do. Your “why” is the reason you get out of bed in the morning and do all that you do. Your “why” is what you believe you are meant to do here. Some of us know our “why.” Some of us do not. And, for some of us it changes over the course of a lifetime. Knowing your purpose is crucial because it gives you direction. My “why” is focused on my family and the people close to me that have made me the man I am today; I truly don’t know where I would be without them.

The second engraving is “God’s Speed.” This will remind me that things will happen when they are meant to occur. Like being in the wonderful place right now of getting my band of gold. Through the journey of life, having God by my side eases my worries because I know In the end I will be alright.

Q. Who inspired you to begin your journey here at The Citadel?

A. My father has definitely inspired me to not only make the choice to come here, but to push through the hard times to success. When deciding to attend as a cadet-athlete, I was skeptical about whether I could handle sports plus the military requirements, on top of academics. I did my best to set an example of how an athlete at The Citadel should balance academics, athletics and our military requirements – all of them – like everyone else.

Left to right: Me, my father, Jerry Higgins Jr., my brother Cameron, my stepmother Svetlana, and my sister Sasha, in July when we all attended my brother’s preschool graduation.

My father assured me that he raised me to be able to endure any environment, and this was very true. His strength powers me through every day!

Q. Do you feel that you will have any special obligations now that you wear the ring?

A. Yes. Many. The ring represents everyone that has come before my class and that will come after. The same principles that I learned here will be with me as I wear the ring.

For me, wearing the ring is also showing appreciation for the people who were here in the Corps of Cadets before me. I know there have been many African American cadets that have attended this college that have paved the way for minorities to be accepted here.

Additionally, I think that it’s important that people realize that our ring isn’t your typical class ring. The ring bonds everyone that has successfully come through the gates of this school and represents sacrifices they made to be here.

Q. What are three specific things The Citadel taught you?

A. 1. Be grateful for everything. 2. Struggle is necessary for growth. 3. The importance of accountability.

Cadets Jerry Higgins and Douglas Karam, accompanied by Dr. John Weinstein, Biology, deploy an experiment to measure how face masks, rubber gloves and hand wipes decompose in the salt marsh behind Inouye Hall on Thursday, October 14, 2021.  Credit: Cameron Pollack / The Citadel
Cadet Jerry Higgins III in the marsh near The Citadel campus, setting up a biology research project to measure the environmental impacts of discarded facemasks, gloves and anti-bacterial wipes in coastal areas.

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Citadel cadets, professor launch investigation into impacts of PPE on Charleston marshes https://today.citadel.edu/citadel-cadets-professor-launch-investigation-into-impacts-of-ppe-on-charleston-marshes/ Fri, 15 Oct 2021 13:37:16 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27792 Photograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TVPhotograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TV“It feels like you can have an impact on something you’re going through right now."]]> Photograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TVPhotograph credit: Forrest Tucker WCBD TV

As seen on WCBD-TV, by Forrest Tucker

Photo above by Forrest Tucker, News 2, WCBD-TV

Armed with boots to trench through muddy banks near the Citadel’s campus, senior cadets Douglas Karam and Jerry Higgins installed a project that the pair have been working on for much of the semester.

“The planning and the process of putting it together actually took about six to seven weeks,” said Karam.

The goal of their experiment is to see how face masks, rubber gloves and hand wipes decompose in a salt marsh environment over the next eight months. The personal protective equipment, or PPE, is screwed down on boards that will become submerged during high tides.

“It feels like you can have an impact on something you’re going through right now,” said Karam.

Photograph by Forrest Tucker, News 2, WCBD-TV

The COVID-19 pandemic created a large need for items like masks and wipes and not all of them have been disposed of properly.

According to research from Ocean Asia, an estimated 1.5 billion facemasks may have entered the ocean as plastic litter in 2020.

“There’s a myth that plastic items take decades to centuries to degrade. What we’re finding in the salt marsh environment is that it’s happening a lot quicker,” said Citadel Professor of Biology Dr. John Weinstein.

With the Lowcountry’s environment mostly made up of saltwater marshes, Dr. Weinstein and the cadets think that the PPE will start to degrade into thousands of microplastics in a much shorter amount of time.

“We believe that it will degrade in four weeks. But over time we are going to check it out at four weeks, eight weeks, sixteen weeks, and thirty-two weeks,” said Higgins. “So we will see how it degrades over time, the rate of how it degrades, and how much each product degrades.”

The research will help them gauge the impact PPE pollution has on aquatic life, including seafood caught to be served in restaurants, and humans.

“As far as their life processes and what they ingest (the aquatic life) are surrounded in water. Not only does it affect the aquatic animals, but also the people who are living in this environment,” said Higgins.

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A 1,000-year-old battle sparks a fresh war among academics, amateurs https://today.citadel.edu/a-1000-year-old-battle-sparks-a-fresh-war-among-academics-amateurs/ Thu, 14 Oct 2021 12:02:32 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27759 Battle recommenced this year when Mr. Livingston, a professor at The Citadel, South Carolina’s military college, released a book pinpointing Brunanburh as happening on the Wirral Peninsula, near Liverpool.]]>

Brunanburh is ancient history. Yet fighting has intensified about where, exactly, it happened

Note: Michael Livingston, Ph.D., holds degrees in history, medieval studies and English. Two of his books have won Distinguished Book Prizes from the Society for Military History. He is also a novelist. Livingston serves as the Secretary General to the U.S. Commission on Military History. He joined The Citadel as a professor in 2006.

As seen in the Wall Street Journal, by Alistair MacDonald

BARNSDALE, England—Over 1,000 years ago, vast armies from what are now Scotland and Ireland swept into a field here to be defeated by soldiers from the emerging nation of England.

No they didn’t, says Michael Livingston, an American historian, who argues that the battle known as Brunanburh happened some 100 miles west, near Liverpool. Mr. Livingston, though, is flat out wrong, says Damo Bullen, a British music festival organizer turned bookseller, who like many others says the battle happened somewhere else entirely.

In Britain, historians love to fight over battle sites, but few elicit such stridence and obsession as Brunanburh. There are more than 30 proposed locations for the battle, which took place in 937, and helped shape what would become England.

Brunanburh’s important historic role, and a dearth of contemporary sources describing where it happened, have led people to war over its location for centuries, making it one of the fiercest battle battles.

Traditionally the realm of bickering academics, the issue has grown more heated as the internet and social media give a platform for amateur archaeologists and have-a-go historians.

Michael Livingston

Battle recommenced this year when Mr. Livingston, a professor at The Citadel, South Carolina’s military college, released a book pinpointing Brunanburh as happening on the Wirral Peninsula, near Liverpool. Mr. Livingston started delving into Brunanburh over a decade ago and has suffered vitriol for his views ever since, he said, including receiving a death threat.

“I started getting these communications that were strident and extremely angry,” he said. “It was: How dare you Yank, get involved in ‘our history,’ ” he said.

Tensions are clear in polarized online reviews of the book, “Never Greater Slaughter,” where those critical talk of “shoddy research” and a “so-called historian.”

“It’s simple to say that social media and the internet have changed everything, but it’s also simply true,” said Mr. Livingston, who believes the opening up of academic debate is overall a good thing, even if he could do without the nastiness.

His website asks that if people need to contact him: “Please send him a friendly email.”

One non-abusive adversary is Michael Wood. The lauded British historian and TV presenter thinks Mr. Livingston and others arguing for the same battle location are absolutely wrong, and says he’s been subject to hostility from “the Wirral lot” for saying that.

“The whole thing is based on the interpretation of a single place name,” said Mr. Wood, referring to the town of Bromborough in the Wirral.

Mr. Wood first got interested in Brunanburh over 50 years ago, when as a teenager he read a book on the battle. He has a long list of reasons why he believes it most likely happened in the area around Barnsdale, near the northern English town of Doncaster, including its location on a north-to-south thoroughfare and a nearby fort and spring, two things referenced in an account from the time.

Nonsense, says Mr. Livingston. The Wirral fits the logistics and politics of the battle, and is backed up by old sources and artifacts.

Those artifacts are being dug up by Wirral Archaeology, a group of local history enthusiasts, who have found the remains of a belt-strap, weapons and other treasures on what they reckon is the Brunanburh battlefield. These have been sent to a university for testing that could show their age and where they originated.

One member, Peter Jenkins, blames “keyboard warriors” for the attacks against Mr. Livingston and others.

Historians, amateurs and professionals alike, largely agree on this much: The battle happened when Ireland-based Vikings and two kingdoms from around what is now northwest England and Scotland came to destroy Æthelstan, a king who had consolidated his control of much of what became England. They were routed in a blood-drenched fight in which there were “never yet as many people killed before this with sword’s edge,” according to one contemporary account.

But where?

Mr. Bullen, the former music-festival organizer who now runs a bookstore in Scotland, says he often contacts supporters of the Wirral argument. “I said, ‘guys, I am sorry, but you are wrong,’ ” he said of heated discussions. The 45-year-old accuses his adversaries of arrogance.

Mr. Bullen’s interest in archaeology was inspired by watching Mr. Wood’s TV programs as a child. But he dismisses the historian’s theory on Brunanburh as having no depth. “He is a good historian, but he is not a detective,” he said.

Mr. Bullen believes the battle happened near the northern English town of Burnley, pointing to a local hill fort and grave from that era among other evidence. He has written a poem to highlight his claims.

Fathers & princes, kings & sons,

All mingled for the fray,

Death dips & darts, for many hearts

This was their final day.

Britain is pockmarked with battle sites given its long, violent history but pinpointing where any fight happened hundreds of years ago is hard because accounts don’t dwell on location. Place names and topographies can also change, while battlefields were stripped of abandoned weaponry at the time.

Historic England, a government-financed heritage body, has just 47 battlefields in its national register, which requires a site’s provenance to be “securely established.” Brunanburh is not one of them.

For decades historians were convinced where the Battle of Bosworth Field settled a bloody dynastic struggle in 1485, and a large heritage center was built at the site in England’s Midlands region. A recent, more comprehensive study suggests it took place elsewhere.

Mr. Wood says that local pride and the potential for tourism means everyone wants a battle to happen near them.

At Barnsdale, Ashley Tabor was cleaning the gas station he works at when he learned that thousands may have fought and died nearby.

“I’d love it to be local, yes,” he said, looking out across the area, where a busy highway, deserted motel and adult video store now stand.

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My Ring Story: a lifelong dream https://today.citadel.edu/my-ring-story-a-lifelong-dream/ Wed, 13 Oct 2021 16:28:51 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27710 picture-with-the-cadets-from-left-to-right-is-Avery-Canady-me-Porter-Beal-Tim-Toomer-Marie-Le-Gallo-Blake-Durden-Evan-Lambrecht-George-Mock-and-Colby-Bennett.-scaled.jpegpicture-with-the-cadets-from-left-to-right-is-Avery-Canady-me-Porter-Beal-Tim-Toomer-Marie-Le-Gallo-Blake-Durden-Evan-Lambrecht-George-Mock-and-Colby-Bennett.-scaled.jpeg"I have honestly envisioned this moment all my life."]]> picture-with-the-cadets-from-left-to-right-is-Avery-Canady-me-Porter-Beal-Tim-Toomer-Marie-Le-Gallo-Blake-Durden-Evan-Lambrecht-George-Mock-and-Colby-Bennett.-scaled.jpegpicture-with-the-cadets-from-left-to-right-is-Avery-Canady-me-Porter-Beal-Tim-Toomer-Marie-Le-Gallo-Blake-Durden-Evan-Lambrecht-George-Mock-and-Colby-Bennett.-scaled.jpeg

Meet Jacob Lane Rush, Class of 2022

Photo above from left to right: Avery Canady, Jacob, Porter Beal, Tim Toomer, Marie Le Gallo, Blake Durden, Evan Lambrecht, George Mock and Colby Bennett.

MSG Jacob Lane Rush is from Concord, North Carolina, is majoring in Business Administration. and has earned gold stars for academic achievement. After graduation he plans to attend law school to eventually become a corporate attorney.

Q. What quote is engraved inside your ring and what is its significance?

A. Inside my ring I have the Bible verse Colossians 3:23 which says “Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for human masters.” This is a hugely significant verse to me because I believe that everything we do must be done to the best of our ability to glorify God, and my Citadel experience was no different.

Q. Did you ever envision the day you’d earn your ring?

A. I have honestly envisioned this moment all my life. I have dreamt about earning the ring since I was very young, and it has always been a goal of mine.

Q. Who inspired you to begin/continue your journey here at The Citadel?

A. I would definitely say that my parents were a huge inspiration to me. They were the ones that introduced me to the school from a very young age, and they always said I had what it took to make it at The Citadel. My mom was especially inspirational. She always told me that she thought I was “born to go to The Citadel,” and that simple statement carried me through many ups and downs during my experience.

“This is my family on my first Parents Weekend, Oct 4, 2019. From left to right you’ll see my brother, Jackson, mom, Tamara and dad, Jeff.”

Q. What is a song that describes your emotions leading up to this time in your college career?

A. The song that runs through my head the most often is Country Roads by John Denver. Not only does this song make me think about my late grandfather, who serves as an inspiration and role model, but it also makes me think about the journey that I’ve been on.

Q. What are three things The Citadel taught you that you wouldn’t have learned at another college?

A. One of the main things that I have learned is how much I have to be thankful for. Knob year was a huge eye opener about how lucky I am, and it has seriously changed my views when I return home. Additionally, I’ve learned that you always have a little more to give than what your mind tells you. More times than I can count I have been in situations here when I thought I was was giving 100 percent, but then when needing to dig even deeper, The Citadel taught me how to summon the energy I needed to get through the challenge. Finally, and most importantly, The Citadel taught me how to let go and trust God in my life. It goes without saying that every day is filled with challenges, and I learned that I couldn’t deal with all these on my own and that I needed to tell my troubles to God and he would get me through them.

Q. What will you miss most about your time here?

A. I am already beginning to realize that what I will miss the most is the friendships. It hit me recently that while we will be lifelong friends, in a few short months, we will never be able to joke around on the galleries or go to mess together again. There will be no more marching in parades or staying up all night to clean for an inspection. I think I will miss that more than anything in the world.

About The Citadel Class of 2022 Ring Stories

Left to right: MSG Olivia Hime, Regimental Public Affairs NCO, and MAJ Samantha Walton, Regimental Public Affairs Officer, Class of 2022

The Class of 2022 Ring Presentation Ceremony was held on Friday, Oct. 1. The stories presented here are the result of the leadership of Regimental Public Affairs officer, Major Samantha Walton, and Regimental Public Affairs Non Commissioned Officer, Cadet Olivia Hime. Both women will also receive their rings and will graduate in May.

Walton, who is from Macon, Georgia, attends The Citadel on an U.S. Army scholarship and will accept a commission to become an officer upon graduating. She is majoring in Political Science and holds the Charles Foster Scholarship.

Hime, who is from Holly Springs, North Carolina, is a junior and a member of The Citadel Honors Program. She is majoring in Biology, has repeatedly earned gold stars and President’s List positions for academic excellence. Hime will graduate in May, a year early, and plans to attend medical school to become a physician.

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Do your part to #BeCyberSmart https://today.citadel.edu/do-your-part-to-becybersmart/ Mon, 11 Oct 2021 19:55:23 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27679 Matriculation Day for the Class of 2025 at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina on Saturday, August 14, 2021. Credit: Cameron Pollack / The CitadelMatriculation Day for the Class of 2025 at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina on Saturday, August 14, 2021. Credit: Cameron Pollack / The Citadel"Your mobile device could be filled with suspicious apps running in the background..."]]> Matriculation Day for the Class of 2025 at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina on Saturday, August 14, 2021. Credit: Cameron Pollack / The CitadelMatriculation Day for the Class of 2025 at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina on Saturday, August 14, 2021. Credit: Cameron Pollack / The Citadel

By CDCI Team

October is National Cybersecurity Awareness Month and The Citadel Department of Defense Cyber Institute (CDCI) will be identifying the many ways you can protect your cyber presence at home, in the workplace and on the go.

Cybersecurity is vital as we continue to grow and evolve in our everyday use of technology for both work and play.

CDCI is hosting and participating in several events on campus and kicked off National Cybersecurity Month by providing CDCI spirit towels at the Bulldogs game against VMI. Next up is a cadet-led Lunch and Learn event from 12 – 1 p.m. on Wednesday, Oct. 13, in the Riverview Room upstairs in Coward Hall. The event is free but registration is required by going to this link.

5 things to remember about Cybersecurity

Here are five tips from the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency to keep in mind during Cybersecurity Awareness Month and beyond.

Double your login protection.

Enable multi-factor authentication for all accounts and devices to ensure that the only person who has access to your account is you. Use it for email, banking, social media and any other service that requires logging in.

Shake up your password protocol.

According to National Institute of Standards and Technology guidance, you should consider using the longest password or passphrase permissible. Get creative and customize your standard password for different sites, which can prevent cyber criminals from gaining access to these accounts and protect you in the event of a breach.

Never click and tell.

Limit what information you post on social media—from personal addresses to where you like to grab coffee. What many people don’t realize is that these seemingly random details are all criminals need to target you, your loved ones and your physical belongings—online and in the real world.

Keep tabs on your apps.

Most connected appliances, toys and devices are supported by a mobile application. Your mobile device could be filled with suspicious apps running in the background or using default permissions you never realized you approved—gathering your personal information without your knowledge while also putting your identity and privacy at risk.

Stay protected while connected.

Before you connect to any public wireless hotspot – like at an airport, hotel, or café – be sure to confirm the name of the network and exact login procedures with appropriate staff to ensure that the network is legitimate.

What is CDCI?

CDCI is an acronym for The Citadel Department of Defense Cyber Institute. The Citadel and the nation’s other five senior military colleges have each received approximately $1.5 million of federal money to establish cybersecurity institutes as pilot programs on their campuses. The objective of CDCI is to provide highly skilled, principled leaders for the Department of Defense who are ready to join the cyber workforce on “day one” after graduation.

For more information on CDCI, please visit: https://www.citadel.edu/root/cdci

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“Surfing” barnacles research earning Citadel scientist international attention https://today.citadel.edu/surfing-barnacles-research-earning-citadel-scientist-international-attention/ Fri, 08 Oct 2021 21:11:22 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27650 Sea turtle's head with barnacles on itSea turtle's head with barnacles on it"We thought, ‘Ah, these guys are moving around so that they can get close together for reproduction.’"]]> Sea turtle's head with barnacles on itSea turtle's head with barnacles on it

Barnacles can move? Seriously who knew? Apparently not many people.

Research by a marine biologist at The Citadel is popping up science news outlets after his work was published by The Royal Society Publishing. The academic piece is entitled “Five hundred million years to mobility: directed locomotion and its ecological function in a turtle barnacle.”

The abstract states that Professor John Zardus, Ph.D., and his co-authors “confirm that the epizoic sea turtle barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, has evolved the capacity for self-directed locomotion as adults.” 

Yes, the barnacles that spend their lives attached to sea turtles actually move around on the turtle, they are not stagnant. And, according to the research, they often leave behind a little trail of their sticky “cement.”

Recorded Chelonibia testudinaria barnacle movement on plexiglass plate
Courtesy of Benny K.K. Chan and JRI-Chi Lin

“The goal of movement ecology is to determine how, why, where and when organisms move,” said Zardus. “And that’s what we set out to discover with barnacles.”

Here’s a look at two popular magazine articles about the findings.

Some Barnacles Can Move Around to Improve Feeding Position

The Scientist spoke with marine biologist and barnacle researcher John Zardus about why turtle barnacles—previously thought to be immobile—in fact slowly travel. He thinks the answer is food

As seen in The Scientist, by Chloe Tenn

Almost by definition, barnacles are immobile: these crustaceans cluster on surfaces such as whale heads, sea turtle shells, coastal rocks, and ship hulls. Once barnacle larvae mature, they travel on ocean currents in search of an anchoring place, preferentially settling in locations with good water flow, which often happen to be moving marine animals. Barnacles stick to host locations by secreting an adhesive cement, typically from a rigid plate on their undersides, that glues them to the surface. The general consensus has long been that barnacles then remain permanently cemented to their chosen surfaces, never to move again.

But a 2008 paper described an exception in barnacle immobility in the turtle barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. This unexpected observation inspired John Zardus, a marine biologist and professor at The Citadel in South Carolina, and his colleagues to investigate barnacle locomotion on turtle shells. In a study published October 6 in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, they report that not only is Chelonibia testudinaria mobile, but it navigates purposefully toward locations of high water flow where the barnacles can more easily feed.

Barnacles are classified as filter feeders, extending a small fiber-like fan appendage that captures particles and miniscule organisms from the surrounding seawater. They may be able to feed more effectively if they are positioned so that currents push food particles into their fan. Zardus and colleagues hypothesized that Chelonibia testudinaria position themselves to capture more food, and tested this idea in multiple aquarium tanks around the world. The researchers observed that the barnacles moved up to 78.6 mm over the course of a year and could change directions. They also found that the barnacles situated on turtle shells tended to move toward the turtle’s head, against the flow of water that passes as the turtle swims, which would give them access to stronger currents and thus more food.

The Scientist spoke with Zardus about why it matters that these barnacles can move around, and how these slow-moving animals travel over turtle shells.

The Scientist: What interested you in studying animal mobility?

John Zardus: I was originally interested in barnacles that live on other animals. My real question was, how did these barnacles find the host that they have to live on? There are some [barnacles] that are specialized for sea turtles, some for whales. It was just by accident that we came across this species that moves. We weren’t the first ones to discover this. There was a paper published in 2008 by Julia Moriarty. She had contacted me and sent me some photographs, asking, ‘Can barnacles that live on turtles move around?’ I answered, ‘No, no, barnacles don’t do that. Once they’re stuck, they’re there.’ She sent these photos of a time series of turtles over time with barnacles on them. She was using the barnacles to keep track of which turtle was which. She realized that the barnacles seemed to be moving. When I looked at her pictures, I was really blown away by it. We’ve been looking at how that phenomenon could happen ever since. We finally were able to conduct some laboratory experiments that completely confirmed it, and then started asking questions about why they do it.

TS: According to the paper, the study finds barnacles have directed movement for feeding purposes. Could you expand on what this means about the current understanding of barnacles?

JZ: You have to understand a little bit about how a barnacle operates. Basically, they’re like a shrimp in a shell, living upside down, with their head pointed down, and they kick their legs out to capture food. They’re filter feeders, feeding on whatever’s in the plankton. When they attach to a turtle, probably the big benefit [of attaching] is feeding currents. If you take a barnacle, and it’s living in still water, it will take its appendages and stroke them through the water very actively. But once you provide some flow, then they’ll just sit there and passively capture their food. It’s much easier for them to do. They don’t have to expend any energy. This species and others that live on mobile hosts are probably taking advantage of the flow for feeding.

The bottom [of a barnacle shell] is very flat. They sit right on the surface. How does it [move around]? It doesn’t have little legs down there. We don’t know how it’s doing it. We just know that it is [moving] very slowly. It takes weeks or months for it to travel any significant distance. Most barnacles, on their bottom, secrete a basal plate that is made of calcium carbonate, and it’s solid. But this one doesn’t. It has a membrane. There’s a few [barnacles] that are like this with a soft bottom. We’re pretty sure that that’s an important component of the movement.

TS: What surprised you about this ability of barnacles?
JZ: We were pretty sure it was reproduction, but we were wrong. It turned out to be for feeding.

Let me tell you a little about reproduction in barnacles. They are mostly hermaphroditic. They have both male and female components, but they can’t fertilize themselves. They need to have a neighbor. It’s very typical for barnacles to live in clusters so that they can fertilize their neighbor next door. They have direct insemination, with the world’s largest penis per body size. They reach out and copulate with their next-door neighbors. We thought, ‘Ah, these guys are moving around so that they can get close together for reproduction.’

We set up some experiments where we put them in different arrangements, tightly clustered together or separated far apart. We figured that in the ones that were separated far apart, that over time, they would move closer together. But they didn’t. They ended up moving randomly. Only when we put flow on them from the jet in the aquarium did they start moving, and they moved towards the flow.

When you looked at them on sea turtles in the wild, they were mostly moving toward the head of the turtle or towards the anterior part of the turtle shell. That’s going to put them in higher flow. It seems to be that they’re really responding to flow, and that is probably more for feeding, and they don’t seem to be doing it so much for reproduction.

I also have another study that’s in press right now with this species demonstrating that it’s the only barnacle we know of that does not do active feeding. If you give them no flow, a barnacle will typically stroke its appendages to get food. If you put this one with no flow, it does nothing. It’ll die. It will never even actively feed. It relies 100 percent on passive feeding, so it really has to be in a high flow environment all the time. Which makes sense if you’re living on a turtle—you’re going to get a lot of flow.

One of the reasons it might not be so concerned about getting close together with other individuals is [this barnacle] has dwarf males that live attached to it. They’re really tiny, only a few millimeters in size, and a single hermaphrodite . . . may have 30 to 40 of what they call complemental males. They’re tiny individuals and they live in these crevices. They specifically settle in there and then they just provide sperm to the central hermaphrodite. If [the hermaphrodites are] carrying their own males, they probably don’t care if they’re near a neighbor or not because they’ve already got what they need. This one has a really cool biology. All sorts of interesting things going on.


TS: When you were observing these barnacles in the aquariums, were there any challenges that arose with the experiments?
JZ: We had to figure out how to get them attached to surfaces in the lab. We tried two approaches in my lab here in South Carolina. I started raising them from the larval stage, and I could get them to attach onto PVC pipe, and then grow them in the lab just fine. But for whatever reason, those that lived on PVC didn’t move.My colleague in Taiwan, Benny Chan, tried a different approach. He found some crabs that this barnacle was living on. He would catch the crabs, bring them into the lab, euthanize the crabs, cut the crab shell around the base of the barnacle, and then let it sit for a few days until the crab shell dissolved. Once it was dissolved, he could take the barnacle that was intact and healthy, put it onto a plexiglass panel, and let it sit for a few days. It would create some new glue and cement itself onto it. That was the real success. Once we got those glued onto glass panels, those were the ones that we could put into flow and move them around from aquarium to aquarium for the different experiments and do time lapse studies on them.

TS: Do you think that your findings could be extended to perhaps other types of barnacles or sessile animal models?
JZ: I think we should certainly look for it. I don’t think we’re going to find it happening very much. Do I think other barnacles are doing this? I doubt it. Maybe under very special circumstances. We would need to look at those. I think some of the prerequisites for this guy to move is it’s got this very flat, broad base with a membranous bottom. There aren’t too many barnacles that are like that. Those would be the candidates that I think we might look at.

Regarding other animals, there was a recent paper that came out about some deep-sea sponges that they found moving. Again, they don’t know how, but they could see tracks in the sediment or on the surface where the sponges had travelled. That was unexpected. I think it would be interesting to look in other places, but I don’t think it’s going to be widespread phenomenon.

Citadel Professor John Zardus, Ph.D. working with a sea turtle during his research on the epizoic sea turtle barnacle.

TS: Where do you see the future of the research going? What would you like to explore next with these barnacles?
JZ: I think the big question people really want to know is, how do they do this? What’s the mechanism? That’s where we’re headed. We don’t have a lot of tangible evidence for how it’s happening right now.

TS: Do you have any ideas or any suspicions of how barnacles could be moving?
JZ: I think it’s got to do with the glue. Barnacles, when they first attach to the substratum—almost all species—they start secreting a glue that permanently fixes them in place, and then they continue to secrete that glue throughout their lifetime as they get larger and larger. This one’s doing the same thing, but it must also be dissolving its glue. We want to look at that and see if somehow the glue is being laid down, then the animal is somehow severing that connection, and then reapplying the glue in periodic intervals.

We also want to examine this glue more carefully. We know that it looks a little different from some of the other glues we’ve seen in barnacles. It gets put down in different layers and the composition is different just looking under the electron microscope. That’s never been reported in barnacle glue before. That’s one part that we think is going to be important to figuring out.

Also reported on Science.org

It moves! Supposedly immobile barnacles can ‘surf’ across turtle shells
By Rachel Fritts

Courtesy of Prof. John Zardus, Ph.D., The Citadel Department of Biology

Barnacles are notoriously clingy creatures. The filter-feeding crustaceans—familiar sights on rocky shores or the hulls of boats—were long thought to be completely immobile. But a new study has confirmed that at least one species, which settles on top of sea turtle shells, can slide across surfaces to places where it’s easier to snag a snack.

Chelonibia testudinaria live predominantly on the backs of sea turtles and occasionally hitch rides on other seafaring creatures like manatees and crabs. Whereas their larval forms swim freely, adults cement themselves to a surface, where they were believed to hold fast for life. But in the early 2000s, researchers found there might be a little more wiggle room than previously thought: C. testudinaria barnacles on wild green sea turtles seemed to move around on the turtles’ shells, often against the current, over a period of months.

In 2017, other scientists tracked 15 barnacles’ movements on an acrylic surface in a lab (see video, above). After 1 year of observations, they found the barnacles used incremental secretions of their cement to “surf” to a new position, they report today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society: B. They suspect the barnacles are after food, as they moved toward areas of higher water flow—which carry more food particles—when exposed to a current.   

The barnacles won’t be winning any races—they averaged a distance of about 7 millimeters over 3 months, with one barnacle moving 8 centimeters over 1 year. But scientists say this is still a notable feat for a group of animals once considered incapable of relocating.

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My Ring Story: “through adversity to the stars” https://today.citadel.edu/my-ring-story-through-adversity-to-the-stars/ Tue, 05 Oct 2021 21:09:32 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27579 Cadet Ashley Ruiz is from Taylor, Michigan. She is a double major in both Intelligence and Security Studies and Political Science.]]>

Meet Cadet Ashley Ruiz, Class of 2022

Cadet Ashley Ruiz is from Taylor, Michigan. She is a double major in both Intelligence and Security Studies and Political Science, with a minor in Cybersecurity. This year, Ruiz serves as the 5th Battalion Academic Officer.

Q. What is engraved inside your ring and what is its significance?

A. The Latin phrase “per aspera ad astra.”

Its translation is “through adversity to the stars.” It’s a reminder to be resilient. Success isn’t possible without failure and shortcomings, but failure is not futile. It’s your ability to remain steadfast in pursuit of your dreams, even when you meet obstacles, that defines who you are.

Q. Why do you think the ring symbolizes?

The symbolism is not that of your own achievement, but of the bond that it establishes between those who came before you, those who will graduate with you and those who will come after you. The ring’s worth is made greater by the family, mentors, educators and, most importantly, classmates who pushed you along the harder path. Its weight is made up of each late night and early morning, every sweaty parade and PT session, and all the good and bad times that you experience throughout your cadet career.

5th Battalion Staff before the first dress parade of 2021

Q. Did you ever envision this moment?

No, I did not. After graduating high school in 2017, I was in an unstable living situation where I often had to live out of my car. Meanwhile, I had to work 40 hours a week just to pay my bills and afford to take courses at my local community college. I wasn’t sure what direction my life was headed in. However, one day I decided that I wanted to add structure to my life, get a four-year college education and challenge myself to do something meaningful. I decided a military college would be the best option to achieve these things and I ultimately stumbled across The Citadel.

Luckily, I was accepted on a nearly full-ride academic scholarship. I never imagined how transformative this experience would be for me, nor how much the personal adversity I faced before matriculating would translate into the hard-work mentality which has allowed me to be successful at The Citadel. Seeing the ring on my finger makes the journey feel like it has come full circle and I cannot be more grateful.

Q. Who inspired you throughout your journey here at The Citadel?

My mom. Resilience is an integral value to me, and my mom is the embodiment of resilience. As a single parent, she sacrificed so much to make sure that I was successful and had the opportunity to go to college. She often put her dreams to the side to make sure that my dreams were actualized, and that is truly inspiring to me.

Cadet Ashley Ruiz, center, with Cadets Reanna Wrecsics and Jack Simone at the first home football game of the 2021 season

Q. When you look down at your ring, what will you remember about your experience?

Ordinary and mundane moments. Things like laughing in the mess hall, sitting out on the dock with friends, barracks shenanigans, pulling all-nighters for SMIs or tests, and much more.

What are three things The Citadel taught you?

  1. Hard work is the greatest key to success. Whatever your aim is (good grades, a high PT score, etc.), it all depends on the effort you are willing to put into it.
  2. Your days depend on your mindset. You have the choice to make the best or worst of your experience at The Citadel.
  3. Practice empathetic leadership. You can solve a lot of problems by understanding why people react positively or negatively to something. Empathetic leadership gives you the ability to give everyone a fair shot at telling their story, rather than making rash judgments based on rumors. Furthermore, it forges a greater foundation of trust.

About The Citadel Class of 2022 Ring Stories

Left to right: MSG Olivia Hime, Regimental Public Affairs NCO, and MAJ Samantha Walton, Regimental Public Affairs Officer, Class of 2022

The Class of 2022 Ring Presentation Ceremony was held on Friday, Oct. 1. The stories presented here are the result of the leadership of Regimental Public Affairs officer, Major Samantha Walton, and Regimental Public Affairs Non Commissioned Officer, Cadet Olivia Hime. Both women will also receive their rings and will graduate in May.

Walton, who is from Macon, Georgia, attends The Citadel on an U.S. Army scholarship and will accept a commission to become an officer upon graduating. She is majoring in Political Science and holds the Charles Foster Scholarship.

Hime, who is from Holly Springs, North Carolina, is a junior and a member of The Citadel Honors Program. She is majoring in Biology, has repeatedly earned gold stars and President’s List positions for academic excellence. Hime will graduate in May, a year early, and plans to attend medical school to become a physician.

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My Ring Story: working together to build on the legacy of those who came before https://today.citadel.edu/my-ring-story-working-together-to-build-on-the-legacy-of-those-who-came-before/ Mon, 04 Oct 2021 23:00:00 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27500 Cadet Tyler Mitchell, from Columbia, SC, is a Political Science major. He serves as president of The Citadel College Democrats.]]>

Photo: Tyler Mitchell, second from left, with fellow members of The Citadel College Democrats leadership team (Jalen Singleton, Keyshawn Gascey and Ronald “Deuce” Prince) at The South Carolina State House on April 21, 2021

Meet Cadet Tyler Mitchell, Class of 2022

Cadet Tyler Mitchell, from Columbia, SC, is a Political Science major. He serves as president of The Citadel College Democrats and is a member of The Citadel Gospel Choir and The Citadel African American Society.

Q. What quote is inside your ring, and what is its significance?

A. 1 Kings 2:2, “I go the way of all the earth; be strong, therefore, and prove yourself a man.”

This scripture pertains to embarking on an odyssey where you have no other option but to press forward when tribulations come along. In doing that, you grow in mind, body and spirit and develop into a more sophisticated person. Never put your faith in feelings because your emotions can change like the weather. You have to control your feelings and allow God to direct you to the right path.

Q. Did you ever envision this moment?

I did. But I knew I had to take care of my responsibilities in the classroom and in the Corps if I wanted to make this moment a reality. If you don’t have a blueprint to coincide with your vision, then it is nothing except a dream. No matter the challenges, I told myself I wasn’t going to quit.

Q. What was the most difficult obstacle that you conquered to earn the ring?

A. In the Fall 2020 semester, I took 19 credits, and had an internship and a work-study job — all while recovering from COVID-19. To motivate myself to push through, I had my pictures that I took with Barack Obama, Joe Biden and Kamala Harris from when I went to the debate in Charleston pinned to the bulletin board on my desk in my dorm. That way I got to look at great leaders every morning and know, if I applied my God-given talents to everything I did, that I would soon be in the position they’re in. Wearing the ring is proof that I embraced the challenges before me and made it through the trials and tribulations.

Tyler Mitchell with now-President Joe Biden at The 2020 Presidential Debate at The Gaillard Center in Charleston, South Carolina on February 25, 2020

Q. Does wearing the ring make you feel like you have special obligations?

A. The obligation I have is to be true to who I am and what God has planned for my life. I want to secure my legacy by building positive engagements with the next generation of Citadel cadets. We must pay it forward as we continue to grow in every aspect of our lives. I want to make sure that important issues are addressed and solutions are provided.

Q. In what way has this institution impacted your life?

A. The Citadel taught me the value of teamwork. In order to accomplish a set goal to benefit everyone, you must be willing to put aside any personal discord you have with a teammate and come to a common understanding. Pride and egos have to be checked, and it requires a sense of humbleness on all accounts.

Q. How will you bring a new meaning to the ring?

A. I am hoping to graduate from The Citadel to continue my leadership development. When I matriculated, I made a promise to myself: that I would build upon the legacy of the first black men who joined the Corps of Cadets and made my attendance possible.

Q. What is your next step after you leave The Citadel?

A. I plan to attend law school, become a JAG in the United States Air Force and be a public servant in the state of South Carolina.

Tyler Mitchell on the first day of his senior year, August 25, 2021

About The Citadel Class of 2022 Ring Stories

Left to right: MSG Olivia Hime, Regimental Public Affairs NCO, and MAJ Samantha Walton, Regimental Public Affairs Officer, Class of 2022

The Class of 2022 Ring Presentation Ceremony was held on Friday, Oct. 1. The stories presented here are the result of the leadership of Regimental Public Affairs officer, Major Samantha Walton, and Regimental Public Affairs Non Commissioned Officer, Cadet Olivia Hime. Both women will also receive their rings and will graduate in May.

Walton, who is from Macon, Georgia, attends The Citadel on an U.S. Army scholarship and will accept a commission to become an officer upon graduating. She is majoring in Political Science and holds the Charles Foster Scholarship.

Hime, who is from Holly Springs, North Carolina, is a junior and a member of The Citadel Honors Program. She is majoring in Biology, has repeatedly earned gold stars and President’s List positions for academic excellence. Hime will graduate in May, a year early, and plans to attend medical school to become a physician.

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The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute mark historic year with both Corps of Cadets being commanded by women https://today.citadel.edu/the-citadel-and-virginia-military-institute-mark-historic-year-with-both-corps-of-cadets-being-commanded-by-women/ Sat, 02 Oct 2021 20:01:06 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27311 This year marks the first time both Corps of Cadets from The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute (VMI) are led by regimental commanders who are women. ]]>

Photo above: The Citadel Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet Col. Kathryn Christmas, ’22, front left, and VMI’s Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet First Captain Kasey Meredith, ’22, front right, leading their respective Corps of Cadets in a salute on the football field during a military fly over at Johnson Hagood Stadium in Charleston, South Carolina, when the two Senior Military Colleges played the Military Classic of the South football game, Oct. 2, 2021.

This year marks the first time both Corps of Cadets from The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute (VMI) are led by regimental commanders who are women.

The Senior Military Colleges took time to recognize this moment in history on Oct. 2 at two events held on The Citadel campus in Charleston, South Carolina. During Parents’ Weekend at The Citadel the college also hosted VMI for the annual Military Classic of the South football game. The confluence of events provided the opportunity for the regimental commanders of both institutions to meet in person.

“As the nation’s military culture continues to evolve with more and more women in commanding roles, so to should the country’s Senior Military Colleges,” said The Citadel President, Gen. Glenn M. Walters, USMC (Ret.), ’79. “We are pleased to welcome Cadet First Captain Kasey Meredith, Virginia Military Institute’s first female regimental commander, to The Citadel as she joins Cadet Col. Kathryn Christmas for this historic moment when for the first time, the Corps of Cadets of both colleges are being commanded by women.”

The Citadel President, Gen. Glenn M. Walters, USMC (Ret.), ’79, and the Superintendent of Virginia Military Institute, Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, USA (Ret.) VMI Class of 1985, pause on Summerall Field after the Parents’ Weekend military dress parade at The Citadel to discuss the fact that this year marks the first time both Corps of Cadets are led by regimental commanders who are women. Wins and VMI cadets were visiting to watch the Military Classic of the South football game between the two Senior Military College’s in Charleston, South Carolina on Oct. 2, 2021.

The second woman to command the South Carolina Corps of Cadets at The Citadel is Cadet Col. Kathryn Christmas. Christmas is from Easley, South Carolina and is a Mechanical Engineering major attending with a U.S. Air Force contract. The Citadel’s first woman regimental commander was Cadet Col. Sarah Zorn in 2018. VMI’s Cadet First Captain, Kasey Meredith, is that institution’s first woman commander. The Johnstown, Pennsylvania native is majoring in International Studies and will accept a commission into the U.S. Marine Corps upon graduating in May.

“I am honored to serve alongside the first female Regimental Commander of VMI. We do not compete as rivals; we are equals, facing a common challenge,” said the Christmas, ’22.


The Citadel Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet Col. Kathryn Christmas, ’22, left, and VMI’s Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet First Captain Kasey Meredith, ’22 are introduced on Summerall Field during the South Carolina Corps of Cadets’ military dress parade on Parents’ Weekend when the two women commanders met for the first time, just before the two Senior Military Colleges played the Military Classic of the South football game on Oct. 2, 2021.

The regimental commanders at both colleges are responsible for the success and well-being of all cadets in their Corps, most of whom are 18 – 21 years old, and all are undergraduate students. The commanders are supported by regimental staffs, cadet officers and cadet non-commissioned officers. The Citadel has approximately 2,300 cadets. VMI’s Corps is comprised of about 1,700 cadets.

The regimental commanders were formally introduced to the audience watching the Parents’ Weekend military review parade on Summerall Field by the parade announcer. The women greeted each other and exchanged uniform covers (hats).

“Today was another historic day in the history of the Virginia Military Institute. The meeting between the two regimental commanders, Ms. Meredith and Ms. Christmas, is one that many believed would never be possible,” said the VMI Superintendent, Maj. Gen, Cedric T. Wins, USA (Ret.), ’85. “I am proud of these two young leaders and look forward to being amazed at what they are able to accomplish in the future.”

The Citadel Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet Col. Kathryn Christmas, ’22, left, and VMI’s Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet First Captain Kasey Meredith, ’22, right, exchanging mementos on the football field during a military fly over at Johnson Hagood Stadium in Charleston, South Carolina, when the two Senior Military Colleges played the Military Classic of the South football game, Oct. 2, 2021.

Additionally, the two commanders were introduced to people in the stands at Johnson Hagood Stadium watching the football game. After the first quarter, the women were called onto the field to be recognized by the cadets they lead, many of whom were in attendance.

“It was a pleasure meeting The Citadel’s Regimental Commander, Ms. Christmas.  We are alike in a noticeable way, being both females,” said Meredith, ‘22. “However, what is truly important and pivotal is the relationship we are growing with each other as leaders, not as rivals. We are both leading our respective corps and through our successes and failures and we have each other to lean on and to learn from.”

The U.S. has six, federally designated Senior Military Colleges providing a combination of higher education and military training. Unlike the service academies, however, the cadets attending Senior Military Colleges are not required to serve in the U.S. Armed Forces, though many do, graduating as military officers.

The Citadel Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet Col. Kathryn Christmas, ’22, left, and VMI’s Regimental Commanding Officer, Cadet First Captain Kasey Meredith, ’22 during a candid moment in Padgett Thomas Barrack on The Citadel campus in Charleston, South Carolina, on October 2, 2021 during Parents Weekend when the two Senior Military Colleges play the Military Classic of the South football game.


FINALLY TODAY, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, AS THE REGIMENTAL STAFF COMPLETES THE PARADE WE WOULD LIKE TO RECOGNIZE A HISTORIC MOMENT IN THE HISTORY OF SENIOR MILITARY COLLEGES.

THIS YEAR IS THE FIRST TIME BOTH CORPS’ OF CADETS FROM THE CITADEL AND VIRGINIA MILITARY INSISTUTE ARE LED BY REGIMENTAL COMMANDERS WHO ARE WOMEN. 

CADET FIRST CAPTAIN MEREDITH, THE REGIMENAL COMMANDER FOR THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE NOW MOVES TO THE REVIEWIING AREA TO MEET WITH CADET COLONEL CHRISTMAS AND EXCHANGE COLLEGE MEMENTOS.

The Citadel Parents’ Weekend dress parade announcer, Cadet Shiloh Smiles
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My Ring Story: setting the example https://today.citadel.edu/my-ring-story-setting-the-example/ Fri, 01 Oct 2021 16:22:49 +0000 https://today.citadel.edu/?p=27327 Cadet Chia-Feng Chiang is a Finance major from Changhua, Taiwan. A member of the Summerall Guards, he has earned gold stars multiple semesters.]]>

Meet Cadet Chia-Feng Chiang, Class of 2022

Cadet Chia-Feng Chiang is a Finance major from Changhua, Taiwan. Chiang is a member of the Summerall Guards; he has earned gold stars, and been named to the President’s List, for multiple semesters.

Q. What quote is engraved inside your ring, and what is its significance?

A. “Embrace the suck, keep your head up.”

There has been no easy day since I came to The Citadel. I want to remind myself, that no matter how hard life will be, to remember the days I gave my all to make myself and my family proud.

Q. Who inspired you to begin or continue your journey here at The Citadel?

A. My parents both work in a welding factory, and they have worked there for almost half of their lives. Watching them work day and night, and even on the weekends, to make sure their children get a good education really motivates me to put my best effort into studying.

Chiang, front right, at a family reunion with grandparents, parents, uncles, aunts, cousins and siblings

Q. In what ways has this institution impacted your life?

A. The Citadel gives me lots of opportunities to prove myself and let me understand that nothing is impossible.

I had never thought of becoming a rank-holder when I was a knob, because I was afraid that the language barrier would be the biggest problem for me. However, throughout my four-year cadet career at The Citadel, I have experienced multiple leadership positions.

Most importantly, I was able to go through the rigorous training and competitive process among other excellent classmates, and I was selected to become a member of the most prestigious club at The Citadel, the Summerall Guards.

I am grateful for all the opportunities that The Citadel has given me to grow and shape me into a leader.

Taiwanese cadets at The Citadel

Q. When you get the opportunity to look down at your ring, what memories will you remember about your experience?

A. One of the memories will likely be of the time I was preparing for international cadet selection. Since the international cadet program is a government-sponsored unit, I had to go through multiple tests and training in order to qualify as a candidate before coming to The Citadel. Apart from the requirements to become a candidate, I also had to perform cadet duties as a freshman in the Taiwanese Army Academy.

Whenever I look down at the ring on my hand, at some point in the future, it will certainly remind me of the countless efforts and commitments that helped me become one of the members of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets.

Chiang, right, and his brother when after reaching the summit of Hehuan Mountain in Taiwan

Q. How will you bring a new meaning to the ring?

A. I will bring a new meaning to the ring by being a good officer in the Taiwanese Army.

I will utilize the leadership skills that I learn at The Citadel to lead the Taiwanese soldiers with humility and develop them into becoming principled leaders.

About The Citadel Class of 2022 Ring Stories

Left to right: MSG Olivia Hime, Regimental Public Affairs NCO, and MAJ Samantha Walton, Regimental Public Affairs Officer, Class of 2022.

The Class of 2022 Ring Presentation Ceremony is Friday, Oct. 1. The stories presented here are the result of the leadership of Regimental Public Affairs officer, Major Samantha Walton, and Regimental Public Affairs Non Commissioned Officer, Cadet Olivia Hime. Both women will also receive their rings and will graduate in May.

Walton, who is from Macon, Georgia, attends The Citadel on an U.S. Army scholarship and will accept a commission to become an officer upon graduating. She is majoring in Political Science.

Hime, who is from Holly Springs, North Carolina, is a junior and a member of The Citadel Honors Program. She is majoring in Biology, has repeatedly earned gold stars and President’s List positions for academic excellence. Hime will graduate in May, a year early, and plans to attend medical school to become a physician.

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